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      Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, patógeno causante del "swiss needle cast" en Pseudotsuga menziesii: antecedentes de su biología, medidas de control y situación en Chile Translated title: Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, pathogen causing the "swiss needle cast" in Pseudotsuga menziesii: biology background, control measures and situation in Chile

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          Abstract

          El swiss needle cast o pérdida suiza de las acículas, es una enfermedad de carácter fungoso provocada por el patógeno Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, organismo que causa severas defoliaciones en Pseudotsuga menziesii (pino oregón) en el mundo, originando pérdidas en el volumen de madera para cosechar. Este patógeno se distribuye en el rango nativo de P. menziesii en América del Norte (EE.UU., Canadá y México) y se ha introducido en Europa, Nueva Zelanda, Turquía y, recientemente en Chile. Actualmente, el país cuenta con una superficie superior a las 16.000 hectáreas de plantaciones de P. menziesii, las cuales van en aumento por tratarse de una especie con potencial productivo considerada en programas de diversificación de especies. En Chile P. gaeumannii se encuentra distribuido desde las regiones de La Araucanía a Los Lagos, concentrándose en estas zonas la mayor superficie de P. menziesii del país (70 % aproximadamente). El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar estudios relacionados a la biología y ciclo de vida del patógeno, la epidemiología y procesos de infección, impacto en las plantaciones y medidas de control implementadas en los diferentes países afectados por este patógeno, de manera de contar con antecedentes científicos para realizar los primeros estudios en Chile, referentes a investigación básica y aplicada para el país.

          Translated abstract

          Swiss needle cast is a disease caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, a fungal pathogen causing severe defoliation in Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) in some countries of the world, leading to losses in the volume of timber harvesting. This pathogen is distributed in the native range of P. menziesii in North America (U.S., Canada and Mexico) and has been introduced in Europe, New Zealand, Turkey and, recently, in Chile. Currently the country has an area larger than 16,000 ha of plantations of P. menziesii, which are increasing because it is a potentially productive species considered in species diversification programs. In Chile P. gaeumannii is distributed from the region of La Araucanía to Los Lagos, focusing on these areas the largest area of Douglas fir in the country (70 % approximately). The aim of this review was to examine studies related to biology and life cycle of the pathogen, epidemiology and infection processes, impact on plantations and control measures implemented in the different countries affected by this pathogen, in order to have a background take on the first studies to Chile, a referent to basic and applied research for the country.

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          Most cited references41

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          Incidence and Impact of Swiss Needle Cast in Forest Plantations of Douglas-fir in Coastal Oregon

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            Pseudothecia of Swiss needle cast fungus, Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, physically block stomata of Douglas fir, reducing CO2 assimilation

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              A climate-based model for predicting geographic variation in swiss needle cast severity in the Oregon coast range.

              ABSTRACT Since the early 1990s, Swiss needle cast disease caused by Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii has been increasing in Douglas-fir plantations in the Oregon Coast Range. Considerable variation in disease severity across the affected area often has been noted. We investigated the influence of site microclimate on fungal colonization as a basis for this variation with a combination of seedling inoculation and field studies. Development of P. gaeumannii ascocarps on inoculated seedlings subjected to mist, irrigation, and shading treatments was followed for 10 months. Contrary to expectations, numbers of ascocarps on foliage were negatively correlated with shade and mist and positively correlated with temperature. Numbers of ascocarps on foliage, site temperature, and leaf wetness were monitored over 5 years at nine field sites in the Oregon Coast Range. Factors most highly correlated with ascocarp abundance were winter mean daily temperature and spring cumulative leaf wetness. Predictive models for disease severity on the basis of these correlations were tested against disease and climate data measured at field sites during 2003-2004. A temperature-based disease prediction model was developed in combination with geographical information systems (GIS)-linked climate databases to estimate disease levels across a portion of the Oregon Coast Range. This model can be used for hypothesis testing and as a decision support tool for forest managers.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                bosque
                Bosque (Valdivia)
                Bosque (Valdivia)
                Universidad Austral de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Forestales (Valdivia, , Chile )
                0717-9200
                2012
                : 33
                : 2
                : 127-134
                Affiliations
                [01] Valdivia orgnameUniversidad Austral de Chile orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Recursos Naturales orgdiv2Instituto de Silvicultura Chile rmorales@ 123456uach.cl
                [02] Concepción orgnameUniversidad de Concepción orgdiv1Facultad de Ciencias Forestales orgdiv2Centro de Biotecnología Chile
                Article
                S0717-92002012000200002 S0717-9200(12)03300202
                8fbf0c45-39fa-467f-b782-fee4cc23410d

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                History
                : 04 January 2012
                : 08 June 2012
                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 8
                Product

                SciELO Chile

                Categories
                REVISIONES

                distribución de SNC en Chile,pérdidas volumétricas de madera,Pseudotsuga menziesii,Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii,volumetric losses timber distribution the SNC in Chile

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