Recent advancement in developmental biology has led to the discovery of immature mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow and several established organs. The therapeutic potentials of such stem cells for treating serious diseases constitute a major rationale for every research effort, and clinical trials for replacing some damaged tissues such as cartilage are currently under way. Although the feasibility of such stem cell therapies for renal diseases remains unknown, it is worthy of pursuing possibilities. As an experimental tool, we have made chimeric rats that carry the bone marrow of transgenic rats expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) throughout the body. All marrow lineages can be traced with bright green fluorescence regardless of their terminal phenotypes in chimeric rats. When compared with other conventional strategies for tracking bone marrow-derived cells, our system is highly sensitive and allows us to take advantage of the rat nephrology. Using this system, we have reported that bone marrow provides mesangial cells during repair process. In this manuscript, we briefly summarize our experiences.