In the new era, China’s economic development is in the offensive period of transforming the development mode, green development is an inevitable requirement to accelerate the transformation of economic development mode and optimize the industrial structure, and we should adhere to the concept of ecological priority and green development to promote high-quality economic development. The 19th Party Congress clearly proposed to “promote green development, establish a sound economic system of green low-carbon cycle development, and build a market-oriented green technology innovation system.” Green technology is the technology to save resources, reduce pollution, and achieve sustainable development. Green technology innovation continues to promote green development, which will become an important support to promote the progress of ecological civilization, adhere to pollution prevention and control, and promote high-quality development. Promoting green technology innovation, taking the road of sustainable development, enhancing the awareness of environmental protection, and promoting high-quality economic development are also inevitable choices to promote the conversion of economic development mode. Carrying out research on the impact of green technological innovation on regional economic growth is of great significance to alleviate the shortage of innovation resources in China, guide enterprises to change to a green way of development, and promote the sustainable development of China’s economy and population, resources, and environment. This paper provides publicly available data from 2015-2021, takes fixed asset investment as the variable, introduces control variables, and analyzes the relationship between technological innovation and economic growth using fixed-effects model and intermediate-effects model. The results show that innovation contributes significantly to regional economic growth and is influenced by the mediating role of fixed asset investment. In order to boost China’s economic growth, specific policy recommendations are proposed in terms of optimizing the regional innovation layout, improving the intellectual property rights system, cultivating high-quality talents, optimizing the structure of fixed assets, and attracting the inflow of foreign capital.