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      Analysis of 16,922 Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack in Japan

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          Objective: The purpose of the present study was to clarify the present status of stroke medicine in Japan using a hospital-based, prospective registration study of 156 hospitals from all over Japan. Methods: Consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) who presented to hospital within 7 days of onset from May 1999 to April 2000 were enrolled in this study. A common protocol was applied in every participating hospital. Results: A total of 16,922 patients (TIA, 6.4%) with a mean age of 70.6 ± 11.5 years (median 71 years, range 18–107 years) were enrolled in the study. Lacunar stroke was the most frequent stroke subtype (38.8%), followed by atherothrombotic (33.3%), cardioembolic (21.8%) and other stroke (6.1%). NIHstroke scale score on admission was 8.0 ± 7.9 (median 5; 25th to 75th percentile, 2–11). 36.8% arrived at hospital within 3 h of symptom onset, and 49.5% within 6 h. The ambulance was used for 70.2% of patients arriving within 3 h after onset, but in only 29.9% of patients visiting the hospital later than 3 h after onset (p < 0.0001). 60.8% displayed good outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0–2 at discharge), while 32.3% displayed poor outcome (score 3–5), and mortality rate was 6.9%. Conclusions: More than half of the acute stroke patients arrived at hospital later than 6 h after onset. Establishment of ideal emergency systems is needed for better management of stroke and for improvement of patient outcome, in particular, in the future after approval of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator for acute ischemic stroke by the Japanese government.

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          Yonsei Stroke Registry

          Background and Purpose: The hospital-based stroke registry is a well-established method useful for understanding diverse clinical characteristics of stroke related to geographical, racial or environmental differences. We analyzed the data from 1,000 patients with acute cerebral infarctions registered with the Yonsei Stroke Registry (YSR) which is the first prospective hospital-based observational study in Korea. Methods: All patients had cerebral infarctions and presented within 7 days of onset. CT or MRI was performed in all patients and a vascular imaging study (digital subtraction or magnetic resonance angiography) was conducted in 53.9% of the patients. Subtype classification was made through a consensus approach based on the strict application of TOAST criteria. Results: The mean age of patients was 62 ± 12 years, and 60.8% were males. Undetermined cause (UD) was the most frequent subtype (40.6%), which was followed by lacunar stroke (LS 21.5%), cardiac embolism (CE 18.3%), large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA 16.5%) and other determined causes (3.1%). Hypertension was found in 64.3%, smoking in 35.2%, diabetes mellitus in 26.9%, hypercholesterolemia in 24.1%, high hematocrit (≧50%) in 21.8%, clinically identified potential cardiac sources of embolism in 18.3%, a history of previous stroke in 22.0% and a history of previous transient ischemic attack in 4.7%. Recurrent stroke was associated with a higher number of risk factors (p < 0.001) and a higher incidence of LAA (p = 0.003) than the first stroke. Vertebrobasilar artery territorial infarction was found in 39.8%, which was associated with higher incidences of LAA and LS and a lower incidence of CE than carotid artery territorial lesions (p = 0.001). The 30-day mortality rate was 5.3% and cerebral herniation caused early death in 52%. Conclusion: The distribution of stroke subtypes in the YSR was largely comparable with that of western registries. The highest incidence of UD might be related to the strict application of TOAST criteria.

            Author and article information

            Cerebrovasc Dis
            Cerebrovascular Diseases
            S. Karger AG
            July 2004
            07 December 2004
            : 18
            : 1
            : 47-56
            Cerebrovascular Division, Department of Medicine, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan
            78749 Cerebrovasc Dis 2004;18:47–56
            © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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            Figures: 2, Tables: 3, References: 30, Pages: 10
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