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      Airway Evaluation and Flexible Endoscopic Procedures in Dogs and Cats: Laryngoscopy, Transtracheal Wash, Tracheobronchoscopy, and Bronchoalveolar Lavage

      Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Flexible endoscopy is a valuable diagnostic approach to the upper and lower respiratory tract, because it allows direct visualization and sample collection. Techniques requiring a range of specialized equipment and varying levels of experience have been developed to access and evaluate each anatomic region. Familiarity with appropriate indications for each procedure and normal appearance, cytology, and culture results from each region will enhance diagnostic success.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice
          Veterinary Clinics of North America: Small Animal Practice
          Elsevier BV
          01955616
          September 2009
          September 2009
          : 39
          : 5
          : 869-880
          Article
          10.1016/j.cvsm.2009.05.001
          19683649
          8fc552e4-b060-4319-93a2-b75856445cab
          © 2009

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/


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