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      The Era of Thromboinflammation: Platelets Are Dynamic Sensors and Effector Cells During Infectious Diseases

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          Abstract

          Platelets are anucleate cells produced by megakaryocytes. In recent years, a robust body of literature supports the evolving role of platelets as key sentinel and effector cells in infectious diseases, especially critical in bridging hemostatic, inflammatory, and immune continuums. Upon intravascular pathogen invasion, platelets can directly sense viral, parasitic, and bacterial infections through pattern recognition receptors and integrin receptors or pathogen: immunoglobulin complexes through Fc and complement receptors—although our understanding of these interactions remains incomplete. Constantly scanning for areas of injury or inflammation as they circulate in the vasculature, platelets also indirectly respond to pathogen invasion through interactions with leukocytes and the endothelium. Following antigen recognition, platelets often become activated. Through a diverse repertoire of mechanisms, activated platelets can directly sequester or kill pathogens, or facilitate pathogen clearance by activating macrophages and neutrophils, promoting neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) formation, forming platelet aggregates and microthrombi. At times, however, platelet activation may also be injurious to the host, exacerbating inflammation and promoting endothelial damage and thrombosis. There are many gaps in our understandings of the role of platelets in infectious diseases. However, with the emergence of advanced technologies, our knowledge is increasing. In the current review, we mainly discuss these evolving roles of platelets under four different infectious pathogen infections, of which are dengue, malaria, Esterichia coli ( E. coli) and staphylococcus aureus S. aureus, highlighting the complex interplay of these processes with hemostatic and thrombotic pathways.

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          Most cited references147

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          Platelet TLR4 activates neutrophil extracellular traps to ensnare bacteria in septic blood.

          It has been known for many years that neutrophils and platelets participate in the pathogenesis of severe sepsis, but the inter-relationship between these players is completely unknown. We report several cellular events that led to enhanced trapping of bacteria in blood vessels: platelet TLR4 detected TLR4 ligands in blood and induced platelet binding to adherent neutrophils. This led to robust neutrophil activation and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Plasma from severely septic humans also induced TLR4-dependent platelet-neutrophil interactions, leading to the production of NETs. The NETs retained their integrity under flow conditions and ensnared bacteria within the vasculature. The entire event occurred primarily in the liver sinusoids and pulmonary capillaries, where NETs have the greatest capacity for bacterial trapping. We propose that platelet TLR4 is a threshold switch for this new bacterial trapping mechanism in severe sepsis.
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            Reciprocal coupling of coagulation and innate immunity via neutrophil serine proteases.

            Blood neutrophils provide the first line of defense against pathogens but have also been implicated in thrombotic processes. This dual function of neutrophils could reflect an evolutionarily conserved association between blood coagulation and antimicrobial defense, although the molecular determinants and in vivo significance of this association remain unclear. Here we show that major microbicidal effectors of neutrophils, the serine proteases neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G, together with externalized nucleosomes, promote coagulation and intravascular thrombus growth in vivo. The serine proteases and extracellular nucleosomes enhance tissue factor- and factor XII-dependent coagulation in a process involving local proteolysis of the coagulation suppressor tissue factor pathway inhibitor. During systemic infection, activation of coagulation fosters compartmentalization of bacteria in liver microvessels and reduces bacterial invasion into tissue. In the absence of a pathogen challenge, neutrophil-derived serine proteases and nucleosomes can contribute to large-vessel thrombosis, the main trigger of myocardial infarction and stroke. The ability of coagulation to suppress pathogen dissemination indicates that microvessel thrombosis represents a physiological tool of host defense.
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              The lung is a site of platelet biogenesis and a reservoir for hematopoietic progenitors

              Platelets are critical for hemostasis, thrombosis, and inflammatory responses 1,2 , yet the events leading to mature platelet production remain incompletely understood 3 . The bone marrow (BM) is proposed to be a major site of platelet production although indirect evidence points towards a potential pulmonary contribution to platelet biogenesis 4-7 . By directly imaging the lung microcirculation in mice 8 , we discovered that a large number of megakaryocytes (MKs) circulate through the lungs where they dynamically release platelets. MKs releasing platelets in the lung are of extrapulmonary origin, such as the BM, where we observed large MKs migrating out of the BM space. The lung contribution to platelet biogenesis is substantial with approximately 50% of total platelet production or 10 million platelets per hour. Furthermore, we identified populations of mature and immature MKs along with hematopoietic progenitors that reside in the extravascular spaces of the lung. Under conditions of thrombocytopenia and relative stem cell deficiency in the BM 9 , these progenitors can migrate out of the lung, repopulate the BM, completely reconstitute blood platelet counts, and contribute to multiple hematopoietic lineages. These results position the lung as a primary site of terminal platelet production and an organ with considerable hematopoietic potential.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Immunol
                Front Immunol
                Front. Immunol.
                Frontiers in Immunology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-3224
                13 September 2019
                2019
                : 10
                : 2204
                Affiliations
                [1] 1University of Utah Molecular Medicine Program , Salt Lake City, UT, United States
                [2] 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Utah , Salt Lake City, UT, United States
                [3] 3Department of Pathology, University of Utah , Salt Lake City, UT, United States
                [4] 4George E. Wahlen VAMC Department of Internal Medicine and GRECC , Salt Lake City, UT, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Craig N. Jenne, University of Calgary, Canada

                Reviewed by: Olivier Garraud, Université de Lyon, France; Bas G. J. Surewaard, University of Calgary, Canada

                *Correspondence: Matthew T. Rondina matthew.rondina@ 123456hsc.utah.edu

                This article was submitted to Inflammation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Immunology

                Article
                10.3389/fimmu.2019.02204
                6753373
                31572400
                8fcef74e-519d-41bc-8fbf-5651336753a0
                Copyright © 2019 Guo and Rondina.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                History
                : 10 May 2019
                : 30 August 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 176, Pages: 14, Words: 11908
                Funding
                Funded by: Foundation for the National Institutes of Health 10.13039/100000009
                Award ID: AG04802
                Award ID: AG059877
                Award ID: HL130541
                Award ID: HL142804
                Categories
                Immunology
                Review

                Immunology
                platelet,sepsis,inflammation,infection,dengue,malaria,bacteria,thromboinflammation
                Immunology
                platelet, sepsis, inflammation, infection, dengue, malaria, bacteria, thromboinflammation

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