In recent years, the problem-based learning (PBL) model has become a hot spot in the education field. Its unique “learner”-centered and “problem-based” characteristics have been widely used in teaching. Make a useful attempt to comply with the development of the times and the requirements of education. This article puts forward the research on the reform of PBL teaching mode based on the microcomputer system and embedded application course group, using literature data method, fuzzy comprehensive analysis method, questionnaire survey method and other methods to explore. This paper designs the experiment of PBL teaching mode reform based on the microcomputer system and embedded application course group, analyzes the domestic research status of PBL teaching mode, and analyzes and summarizes the teaching effect of PBL. The average score of the experimental class with PBL teaching was 74.76 points, and the passing rate reached 95.13%; while the average score of the control group was 70.21 points, and the passing rate was 92.30%. The PBL teaching model of the microcomputer system and embedded application course group conforms to the general direction of my country's education development and reform. It can cultivate students' innovative consciousness and problem-solving ability. It has a certain reference value for improving the quality of course teaching and also provides teachers with a Kind of new teaching ideas and approaches.