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      O-GlcNAc cycling in the developing, adult and geriatric brain

      review-article

      Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

      Springer US

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          Abstract

          Hundreds of proteins in the nervous system are modified by the monosaccharide O-GlcNAc. A single protein is often O-GlcNAcylated on several amino acids and the modification of a single site can play a crucial role for the function of the protein. Despite its complexity, only two enzymes add and remove O-GlcNAc from proteins, O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Global and local regulation of these enzymes make it possible for O-GlcNAc to coordinate multiple cellular functions at the same time as regulating specific pathways independently from each other. If O-GlcNAcylation is disrupted, metabolic disorder or intellectual disability may ensue, depending on what neurons are affected. O-GlcNAc's promise as a clinical target for developing drugs against neurodegenerative diseases has been recognized for many years. Recent literature puts O-GlcNAc in the forefront among mechanisms that can help us better understand how neuronal circuits integrate diverse incoming stimuli such as fluctuations in nutrient supply, metabolic hormones, neuronal activity and cellular stress. Here the functions of O-GlcNAc in the nervous system are reviewed.

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          Most cited references 194

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          Long-term potentiation and memory.

           M A Lynch (2004)
          One of the most significant challenges in neuroscience is to identify the cellular and molecular processes that underlie learning and memory formation. The past decade has seen remarkable progress in understanding changes that accompany certain forms of acquisition and recall, particularly those forms which require activation of afferent pathways in the hippocampus. This progress can be attributed to a number of factors including well-characterized animal models, well-defined probes for analysis of cell signaling events and changes in gene transcription, and technology which has allowed gene knockout and overexpression in cells and animals. Of the several animal models used in identifying the changes which accompany plasticity in synaptic connections, long-term potentiation (LTP) has received most attention, and although it is not yet clear whether the changes that underlie maintenance of LTP also underlie memory consolidation, significant advances have been made in understanding cell signaling events that contribute to this form of synaptic plasticity. In this review, emphasis is focused on analysis of changes that occur after learning, especially spatial learning, and LTP and the value of assessing these changes in parallel is discussed. The effect of different stressors on spatial learning/memory and LTP is emphasized, and the review concludes with a brief analysis of the contribution of studies, in which transgenic animals were used, to the literature on memory/learning and LTP.
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            Cross talk between O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation: roles in signaling, transcription, and chronic disease.

            O-GlcNAcylation is the addition of β-D-N-acetylglucosamine to serine or threonine residues of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) was not discovered until the early 1980s and still remains difficult to detect and quantify. Nonetheless, O-GlcNAc is highly abundant and cycles on proteins with a timescale similar to protein phosphorylation. O-GlcNAc occurs in organisms ranging from some bacteria to protozoans and metazoans, including plants and nematodes up the evolutionary tree to man. O-GlcNAcylation is mostly on nuclear proteins, but it occurs in all intracellular compartments, including mitochondria. Recent glycomic analyses have shown that O-GlcNAcylation has surprisingly extensive cross talk with phosphorylation, where it serves as a nutrient/stress sensor to modulate signaling, transcription, and cytoskeletal functions. Abnormal amounts of O-GlcNAcylation underlie the etiology of insulin resistance and glucose toxicity in diabetes, and this type of modification plays a direct role in neurodegenerative disease. Many oncogenic proteins and tumor suppressor proteins are also regulated by O-GlcNAcylation. Current data justify extensive efforts toward a better understanding of this invisible, yet abundant, modification. As tools for the study of O-GlcNAc become more facile and available, exponential growth in this area of research will eventually take place.
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              An anti-diabetes agent protects the mouse brain from defective insulin signaling caused by Alzheimer's disease- associated Aβ oligomers.

              Defective brain insulin signaling has been suggested to contribute to the cognitive deficits in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a connection between AD and diabetes has been suggested, a major unknown is the mechanism(s) by which insulin resistance in the brain arises in individuals with AD. Here, we show that serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 (IRS-1pSer) is common to both diseases. Brain tissue from humans with AD had elevated levels of IRS-1pSer and activated JNK, analogous to what occurs in peripheral tissue in patients with diabetes. We found that amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) oligomers, synaptotoxins that accumulate in the brains of AD patients, activated the JNK/TNF-α pathway, induced IRS-1 phosphorylation at multiple serine residues, and inhibited physiological IRS-1pTyr in mature cultured hippocampal neurons. Impaired IRS-1 signaling was also present in the hippocampi of Tg mice with a brain condition that models AD. Importantly, intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ oligomers triggered hippocampal IRS-1pSer and JNK activation in cynomolgus monkeys. The oligomer-induced neuronal pathologies observed in vitro, including impaired axonal transport, were prevented by exposure to exendin-4 (exenatide), an anti-diabetes agent. In Tg mice, exendin-4 decreased levels of hippocampal IRS-1pSer and activated JNK and improved behavioral measures of cognition. By establishing molecular links between the dysregulated insulin signaling in AD and diabetes, our results open avenues for the investigation of new therapeutics in AD.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                olof.lagerlof@ki.se
                Journal
                J Bioenerg Biomembr
                J. Bioenerg. Biomembr
                Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
                Springer US (New York )
                0145-479X
                1573-6881
                22 May 2018
                22 May 2018
                2018
                : 50
                : 3
                : 241-261
                Affiliations
                ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Department of Neuroscience, , Karolinska Institutet, ; 171 77 Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                9760
                10.1007/s10863-018-9760-1
                5984647
                29790000
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000273, Diabetes Research & Wellness Foundation;
                Award ID: 720-1597-16PG
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100007508, Stiftelsen Sigurd and Elsa Goljes Minne;
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004348, Stockholms Läns Landsting;
                Categories
                Mini-Review
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                © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

                Molecular biology

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