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      Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinases in the Mouse Uterus and Human Myometrium During Pregnancy, Labor, and Preterm Labor

      1 , 2 , 2 , 1 , 1 , 2
      Reproductive Sciences
      SAGE Publications

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          Epidemiology and causes of preterm birth

          Summary This paper is the first in a three-part series on preterm birth, which is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Infants are born preterm at less than 37 weeks' gestational age after: (1) spontaneous labour with intact membranes, (2) preterm premature rupture of the membranes (PPROM), and (3) labour induction or caesarean delivery for maternal or fetal indications. The frequency of preterm births is about 12–13% in the USA and 5–9% in many other developed countries; however, the rate of preterm birth has increased in many locations, predominantly because of increasing indicated preterm births and preterm delivery of artificially conceived multiple pregnancies. Common reasons for indicated preterm births include pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. Births that follow spontaneous preterm labour and PPROM—together called spontaneous preterm births—are regarded as a syndrome resulting from multiple causes, including infection or inflammation, vascular disease, and uterine overdistension. Risk factors for spontaneous preterm births include a previous preterm birth, black race, periodontal disease, and low maternal body-mass index. A short cervical length and a raised cervical-vaginal fetal fibronectin concentration are the strongest predictors of spontaneous preterm birth.
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            Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases: structure, function, and biochemistry.

            Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), also designated matrixins, hydrolyze components of the extracellular matrix. These proteinases play a central role in many biological processes, such as embryogenesis, normal tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis, and in diseases such as atheroma, arthritis, cancer, and tissue ulceration. Currently 23 MMP genes have been identified in humans, and most are multidomain proteins. This review describes the members of the matrixin family and discusses substrate specificity, domain structure and function, the activation of proMMPs, the regulation of matrixin activity by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases, and their pathophysiological implication.
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              Intrauterine infection and preterm delivery.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Reproductive Sciences
                Reprod Sci
                SAGE Publications
                1933-7191
                1933-7205
                September 2017
                June 2018
                September 26 2017
                June 2018
                : 25
                : 6
                : 938-949
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular and Developmental Medicine, University of Siena, Siena, Italy
                [2 ]Tommy’s Centre for Maternal and Fetal Health, MRC Centre for Reproductive Health, Queen’s Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, United Kingdom
                Article
                10.1177/1933719117732158
                28950743
                8fe1c0e5-cbbe-430a-9db6-71de196575e1
                © 2018

                http://journals.sagepub.com/page/policies/text-and-data-mining-license

                History

                Quantitative & Systems biology,Biophysics
                Quantitative & Systems biology, Biophysics

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