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      Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI ) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria

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          Abstract

          Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state. Randomly selected persons (2 331 males and 2 469 females) were interviewed using a modified rapid assessment procedure for Loa loa (RAPLOA) to assess community directed treatment with ivermectin. The retrospective study evaluated the coverage, impacts and adverse reactions to the drug treatment. A questionnaire was administered by house-to-house visit in six local government areas, implementing community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) in this bioclimatic zone. A total of 2,398 respondents were reported to have participated in the treatment. The overall ivermectin coverage of 49.96% was recorded (range 0 - 52% in different communities). Adverse reactions from ivermectin administration were experienced in 38% of individuals. Diverse adverse reactions experienced included predominantly itching (18.50%); oedema, especially of the face and the limbs (8.2%); rashes (3.4%) and body weakness (2.4%). Expulsion of intestinal worms occurred in 0.96% of the respondents. The occurrence of adverse reactions in relation to age categories was statistically significant. Neither fatal nor severe adverse reactions were reported by respondents. Significantly, despite experienced adverse reactions, continued participation, acceptability and compliance to ivermectin treatment was expressed by the various communities. This attitude is in consonance with the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) objectives. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (4): 1635-1643. Epub 2008 December 12.

          Translated abstract

          La oncocercosis es endémica en el estado Ondo, Nigeria. Se seleccionaron 4 800 personas al azar para evaluar con encuesta retrospectiva la cobertura, efectos y reacciones al tratamiento farmacológico con ivermectina administrado por la misma comunidad. La cobertura global de ivermectina fue 50 % con reacciones adversas en 38 % de los individuos. Estas fueron comezón picazón (18%), edema, especialmente de la cara y las extremidades (8%), erupciones cutáneas (3%) y debilidad (2%); dependieron de la edad y no hubo reacciones más graves. La expulsión de las lombrices intestinales se produjo en 96% de los encuestados. A pesar de las reacciones adversas, hubo continuidad, aceptación y cumplimiento del tratamiento con ivermectina, en consonancia con los objetivos del Programa Africano para el Control de Oncocercosis (APOC).

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          Most cited references 31

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          Three probable cases of Loa loa encephalopathy following ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis.

          Over the past nine years, more than 12 million people exposed to Onchocerca volvulus infection have received at least one dose of ivermectin, almost all without serious adverse reactions. Since 1991, however, several cases with neurologic manifestations, including coma, have been reported after ivermectin treatment of persons infected with O. volvulus who also had concomitant Loa loa infection with very high microfilaremia (> 50,000 microfilariae/ml of blood). In 1995, four criteria were established to define probable cases of Loa encephalopathy temporally related to treatment with ivermectin (PLERI). The present paper describes three PLERI cases recorded in Cameroon and compares them with two others reported previously. Disorders of consciousness began 3-4 days after treatment. The objective neurologic signs were variable. The conditions improved favorably in three patients who benefited from early hospitalization and good nursing; their disorders of consciousness lasted only 2-3 days; the results of clinical examination became normal after one month and electroencephalographic abnormalities disappeared after 5-7 months. Conversely, late diagnosis and delay in proper management in two others probably led to worsening of the condition and to fatal outcome related to the usual complications of coma. In addition to these cases, patients w with high Loa microfilaremia also developed milder neurologic manifestations causing functional impairment lasting for at least one week after treatment. Before launching mass ivermectin distribution programs to control onchocerciasis in central Africa, communities in which the intensity of concomitant L. loa microfilaremia is high need to be identified, and specific educational measures and monitoring strategies should be developed and applied before they are treated.
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            Severe adverse reaction risks during mass treatment with ivermectin in loiasis-endemic areas.

            The control of onchocerciasis remains a priority in sub-Saharan Africa. Jean-Philippe Chippaux, Michel Boussinesq, Jacques Gardon, Nathalie Gardon-Wendel and Jean-Christophe Ernould here outline studies concerning possible severe adverse reactions to ivermectin used to control onchocerciasis in areas where loiasis is also endemic, and discuss precautions that may be advisable during the implementation of such programmes.
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              Relationships between the prevalence and intensity of Loa loa infection in the Central province of Cameroon.

              Ivermectin treatment may induce marked adverse effects in those harbouring > 8000 Loa microfilariae (mff)/ml of blood, individuals with > 30 000 Loa mff/ml being at risk of developing serious neurological reactions. It is thus necessary to delineate the geographical areas where such responses may occur. To determine if the simple measure of prevalence of Loa microfilaraemia would be appropriate to identify the communities at risk, the relationships between prevalence and intensity of Loa microfilaraemia were investigated in 67 villages in Cameroon. The prevalence recorded in the adult population was found to be closely related to each of the indicators of infection intensity investigated. For example, when the prevalences of Loa microfilaraemia in adults were 20%, 30% and 40%, approximately 5%, 9% and 16% of the adults had microfilarial loads exceeding 8000 mff/ml, respectively; the corresponding percentages of adults with > 30 000 mff/ml were about 1%, 3% and 5%-6%. Thus it seems that, in areas where loiasis is co-endemic, the monitoring procedure during large-scale ivermectin treatments for the control of onchocerciasis only needs to be strengthened in those communities where the prevalence of Loa microfilaraemia in adults exceeds 20%.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                rbt
                Revista de Biología Tropical
                Rev. biol. trop
                Universidad de Costa Rica (San José )
                0034-7744
                December 2008
                : 56
                : 4
                : 1635-1643
                Article
                S0034-77442008000400007
                19419072
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                Biodiversity Conservation
                Biology

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