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      Bioactive Constituents of Shoot Extracts of Sisymbrium irio L. Against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae Translated title: Constituintes Bioativos de Extratos de Broto de Sisymbrium irio L. contra Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. Cepae


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          ABSTRACT: The present study was carried out to check the antifungal potential of Sisymbrium irio L. shoot extract against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC). In preliminary bioassays, different concentrations (1 to 5%) of leaf, stem and fruit extracts were evaluated against FOC. All the extracts were effective against the pathogen. However, the leaf extract was found the most effective causing 25-41% decrease in FOC biomass. The fractionation of methanolic leaf extract was done by two organic solvents namely n-hexane and chloroform. Different concentrations (1.56 to 200 mg mL-1) of these fractions were tested against FOC. The n-hexane and chloroform fractions showed inhibitory activity against the pathogen and resulted in 77-93% and 80-96% reduction in biomass of FOC, respectively. GC-MS analysis showed the presence of 24 compounds in n-hexane and 4 compounds in chloroform fraction. In n-hexane fraction, β-sitosterol (18.64%) was the most abundant compound followed by orotic acid, bis(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-, tert-butyldimethylsilyl ester (12.18%), 10-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester (7.90%) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester (6.05%). Major compounds identified in chloroform fraction were 1,3-benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-ethylhexyl) ester (50.82%) and di-n-octyl phthalate (33.00%). This study concludes that n-hexane and chloroform fractions of methanolic leaf extract of S. irio contain potent antifungal constituents for the management of FOC.

          Translated abstract

          RESUMO: O presente estudo foi realizado para verificar o potencial antifúngico do extrato de caule de Sisymbrium irio L. contra Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cepae (FOC). Em bioensaios preliminares, diferentes concentrações (1% a 5%) de extratos de folhas, caules e frutos foram avaliadas contra o FOC. Todos os extratos foram eficazes contra o patógeno. No entanto, o extrato de folhas foi o mais eficaz, causando 25-41% de redução na biomassa FOC. O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas foi feito por dois solventes orgânicos: n-hexano e clorofórmio. Diferentes concentrações (1,56 a 200 mg mL-1) dessas frações foram testadas contra o FOC. As frações de n-hexano e clorofórmio mostraram atividade inibitória contra o patógeno e resultaram em redução de 77-93% e 80-96% na biomassa de FOC, respectivamente. A análise por CG-EM mostrou a presença de 24 compostos em n-hexano e 4 compostos em fração clorofórmica. Na fração n-hexano, o β-sitosterol (18,64%) foi o composto mais abundante, seguido pelo ácido orótico, éster bis (terc-butildimetilsilil) terc-butildimetilsilílico (12,18%), éster de ácido 10-octadecenoico metil (7,90%) e Ter de di-isoctilo do ido 1,2-benzenodicarboxico (6,05%). Os principais compostos identificados na fração clorofórmica foram o ácido 1,3-benzenodicarboxílico, o éster bis (2-etil-hexílico) (50,82%) e o ftalato di-n-octilo (33,00%). Este estudo conclui que as frações de n-hexano e clorofórmio do extrato metanólico das folhas de S. irio contêm potentes constituintes antifúngicos para o manejo do FOC.

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          Most cited references33

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          Onions: a source of unique dietary flavonoids.

          Onion bulbs (Allium cepa L.) are among the richest sources of dietary flavonoids and contribute to a large extent to the overall intake of flavonoids. This review includes a compilation of the existing qualitative and quantitative information about flavonoids reported to occur in onion bulbs, including NMR spectroscopic evidence used for structural characterization. In addition, a summary is given to index onion cultivars according to their content of flavonoids measured as quercetin. Only compounds belonging to the flavonols, the anthocyanins, and the dihydroflavonols have been reported to occur in onion bulbs. Yellow onions contain 270-1187 mg of flavonols per kilogram of fresh weight (FW), whereas red onions contain 415-1917 mg of flavonols per kilogram of FW. Flavonols are the predominant pigments of onions. At least 25 different flavonols have been characterized, and quercetin derivatives are the most important ones in all onion cultivars. Their glycosyl moieties are almost exclusively glucose, which is mainly attached to the 4', 3, and/or 7-positions of the aglycones. Quercetin 4'-glucoside and quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside are in most cases reported as the main flavonols in recent literature. Analogous derivatives of kaempferol and isorhamnetin have been identified as minor pigments. Recent reports indicate that the outer dry layers of onion bulbs contain oligomeric structures of quercetin in addition to condensation products of quercetin and protocatechuic acid. The anthocyanins of red onions are mainly cyanidin glucosides acylated with malonic acid or nonacylated. Some of these pigments facilitate unique structural features like 4'-glycosylation and unusual substitution patterns of sugar moieties. Altogether at least 25 different anthocyanins have been reported from red onions, including two novel 5-carboxypyranocyanidin-derivatives. The quantitative content of anthocyanins in some red onion cultivars has been reported to be approximately 10% of the total flavonoid content or 39-240 mg kg (-1) FW. The dihydroflavonol taxifolin and its 3-, 7-, and 4'-glucosides have been identified in onions. Although the structural diversity of dihydroflavonols characterized from onions is restricted compared with the wide structural assortment of flavonols and anthocyanins identified, they may occur at high concentrations in some cultivars. From bulbs of the cultivar "Tropea", 5.9 mg of taxifolin 7-glucoside and 98.1 mg of taxifolin have been isolated per kilogram of FW.
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            Varietal differences in phenolic content and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of onions.

            Epidemiological studies have indicated that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with a reduced risk for the development of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Phytochemicals, including phenolics and flavonoids, are suggested to be the major bioactive compounds contributing to the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Onions are a major source of dietary flavonoids; however, there may exist varietal differences in composition, concentration, and beneficial activities. To characterize these differences, shallots and 10 onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States (Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia) were evaluated for total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities. Shallots contained the highest total phenolic content (114.7 +/- 10.0 mg/100 g of sample) among the varieties tested, with a 6-fold difference observed when compared to the variety with the lowest phenolic content (Vidalia, p < 0.05). Western Yellow onion variety exhibited the highest total flavonoid content (69.2 +/- 3.7 mg/100 g of onion) of the varieties tested, with an 11-fold difference when compared to the variety with the lowest flavonoid content (Western White, p < 0.05). Shallots exhibited the highest total antioxidant activity (45.5 +/- 2.1 micromol of vitamin C equiv/g of onion), followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. For all varieties, both total phenolic and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with total antioxidant activity (R (2) = 0.9668, p < 0.05; and R (2) = 0.7033, p < 0.05, respectively). The proliferation of HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells was significantly inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion after exposure to the Western Yellow, shallots, New York Bold, and Northern Red extracts, with Western Yellow, shallots, and New York Bold exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against HepG(2) cells and New York Bold and Western Yellow exhibiting the highest antiproliferative activity against Caco-2 cells. However, the varieties of Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia demonstrated weak antiproliferative activity against both HepG(2) and Caco-2 cells. These results may influence consumers toward purchasing onion varieties exhibiting greater potential health benefits and may significantly affect future breeding efforts to enhance onion nutritional qualities.
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              Antifungal and antioxidant activity of fatty acid methyl esters from vegetable oils

              ABSTRACT Fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) were obtained from vegetable oils of soybean, corn and sunflower. The current study was focused on evaluating the antifungal activity of FAMEs mainly against Paracoccidioides spp., as well as testing the interaction of these compounds with commercial antifungal drugs and also their antioxidant potential. FAMEs presented small IC50 values (1.86-9.42 μg/mL). All three FAMEs tested showed antifungal activity against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. with MIC values ranging from 15.6-500 µg/mL. Sunflower FAMEs exhibited antifungal activity that extended also to other genera, with an MIC of 15.6 μg/mL against Candida glabrata and C. krusei and 31.2 μg/mL against C. parapsilosis. FAMEs exhibited a synergetic effect with itraconazole. The antifungal activity of the FAMEs against isolates of Paracoccidioides spp. is likely due to the presence of methyl linoleate, the major compound present in all three FAMEs. The results obtained indicate the potential of FAMEs as sources for antifungal and antioxidant activity.

                Author and article information

                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Planta Daninha
                Planta daninha
                Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas (Viçosa, MG, Brazil )
                : 38
                : e020200961
                [1] Lahore Punjab orgnameUniversity of the Punjab orgdiv1Institute of Agricultural Sciences Pakistan
                [2] Lahore orgnameGC University orgdiv1Department of Chemistry Pakistan
                S0100-83582020000100208 S0100-8358(20)03800000208

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

                : 11 September 2018
                : 26 May 2018
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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 34, Pages: 0

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                podridão basal de cebola,planta daninha Brassicácea,basal rot of onion,brassicaceous weed,methanolic extract


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