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      Annelids of the eastern Australian abyss collected by the 2017 RV ‘Investigator’ voyage

      , 1 , 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 3 , 8 , 1 , 9 , 10 , 6 , 11 , 1 , 2 , 12 , 3 , 13 , 14 , 1 , 4 , 1 , 2 , 10 , 15 , 16 , 6 , 10 , 17 , 4 , 18 , 19

      ZooKeys

      Pensoft Publishers

      Biodiversity, Biogeography, deep sea, Echiura , lower-bathyal, Marine Parks, Polychaeta , Sipuncula , Tasman Sea

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          Abstract

          In Australia, the deep-water (bathyal and abyssal) benthic invertebrate fauna is poorly known in comparison with that of shallow (subtidal and shelf) habitats. Benthic fauna from the deep eastern Australian margin was sampled systematically for the first time during 2017 RV ‘Investigator’ voyage ‘Sampling the Abyss’. Box core, Brenke sledge, and beam trawl samples were collected at one-degree intervals from Tasmania, 42°S, to southern Queensland, 24°S, from 900 to 4800 m depth. Annelids collected were identified by taxonomic experts on individual families around the world. A complete list of all identified species is presented, accompanied with brief morphological diagnoses, taxonomic remarks, and colour images. A total of more than 6000 annelid specimens consisting of 50 families (47 Polychaeta , one Echiura , two Sipuncula ) and 214 species were recovered. Twenty-seven species were given valid names, 45 were assigned the qualifier cf., 87 the qualifier sp., and 55 species were considered new to science. Geographical ranges of 16 morphospecies extended along the eastern Australian margin to the Great Australian Bight, South Australia; however, these ranges need to be confirmed with genetic data. This work providing critical baseline biodiversity data on an important group of benthic invertebrates from a virtually unknown region of the world’s ocean will act as a springboard for future taxonomic and biogeographic studies in the area.

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          Deep-Sea Biology

           John Gage,  Paul Tyler (1991)
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            Cladistics and polychaetes

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              Illuminating the base of the annelid tree using transcriptomics.

              Annelida is one of three animal groups possessing segmentation and is central in considerations about the evolution of different character traits. It has even been proposed that the bilaterian ancestor resembled an annelid. However, a robust phylogeny of Annelida, especially with respect to the basal relationships, has been lacking. Our study based on transcriptomic data comprising 68,750-170,497 amino acid sites from 305 to 622 proteins resolves annelid relationships, including Chaetopteridae, Amphinomidae, Sipuncula, Oweniidae, and Magelonidae in the basal part of the tree. Myzostomida, which have been indicated to belong to the basal radiation as well, are now found deeply nested within Annelida as sister group to Errantia in most analyses. On the basis of our reconstruction of a robust annelid phylogeny, we show that the basal branching taxa include a huge variety of life styles such as tube dwelling and deposit feeding, endobenthic and burrowing, tubicolous and filter feeding, and errant and carnivorous forms. Ancestral character state reconstruction suggests that the ancestral annelid possessed a pair of either sensory or grooved palps, bicellular eyes, biramous parapodia bearing simple chaeta, and lacked nuchal organs. Because the oldest fossil of Annelida is reported for Sipuncula (520 Ma), we infer that the early diversification of annelids took place at least in the Lower Cambrian. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                24 February 2021
                : 1020
                : 1-198
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Australian Museum Research Institute, Sydney, Australia
                [2 ] Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia
                [3 ] Department of Natural History, University Museum of Bergen, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway
                [4 ] Museums Victoria, Melbourne, Australia
                [5 ] Aquatic Research & Consulting, Duxbury, Massachusetts, USA
                [6 ] Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia
                [7 ] University of Vechta, Vechta, Germany
                [8 ] P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
                [9 ] Department of Biology, University of the Balearic Islands, Palma, Spain
                [10 ] Natural History Museum, London, UK
                [11 ] Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City, China
                [12 ] National Institute of Polar Research, Tachikawa, Tokyo, Japan
                [13 ] Department of Biology, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy
                [14 ] Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, DZMB, Hamburg, Germany
                [15 ] Texas A&M University at Galveston, Galveston, TX, USA
                [16 ] Department of Zoology of Invertebrates and Hydrobiology, University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
                [17 ] Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre and University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                [18 ] Biological Faculty, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
                [19 ] South China Sea Environmental Monitoring Centre, State Oceanic Administration, Guangzhou, China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Laetitia M. Gunton ( Laetitia.gunton@ 123456australian.museum )

                Academic editor: Greg Rouse

                Article
                57921
                10.3897/zookeys.1020.57921
                7930015
                Laetitia M. Gunton, Elena K. Kupriyanova, Tom Alvestad, Lynda Avery, James A. Blake, Olga Biriukova, Markus Böggemann, Polina Borisova, Nataliya Budaeva, Ingo Burghardt, Maria Capa, Magdalena N. Georgieva, Christopher J. Glasby, Pan-Wen Hsueh, Pat Hutchings, Naoto Jimi, Jon A. Kongsrud, Joachim Langeneck, Karin Meißner, Anna Murray, Mark Nikolic, Hannelore Paxton, Dino Ramos, Anja Schulze, Robert Sobczyk, Charlotte Watson, Helena Wiklund, Robin S. Wilson, Anna Zhadan, Jinghuai Zhang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Australian Biological Resources Study 501100001138 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001138
                Categories
                Research Article
                Annelida
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Biogeography
                Species Inventories
                Cenozoic
                Australasia
                Oceans
                Pacific Ocean

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