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      Oviposition-Stimulant and Ovicidal Activities of Moringa oleifera Lectin on Aedes aegypti

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          Natural insecticides against the vector mosquito Aedes aegypti have been the object of research due to their high level of eco-safety. The water-soluble Moringa oleifera lectin (WSMoL) is a larvicidal agent against A. aegypti. This work reports the effects of WSMoL on oviposition and egg hatching of A. aegypti.

          Methodology/Principal Findings

          WSMoL crude preparations (seed extract and 0–60 protein fraction), at 0.1 mg/mL protein concentration, did not affect oviposition, while A. aegypti gravid females laid their eggs preferentially (73%) in vessels containing isolated WSMoL (0.1 mg/mL), compared with vessels containing only distilled water (control). Volatile compounds were not detected in WSMoL preparation. The hatchability of fresh eggs deposited in the solutions in the oviposition assay was evaluated. The numbers of hatched larvae in seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL were 45±8.7 %, 20±11 % and 55±7.5 %, respectively, significantly (p<0.05) lower than in controls containing only distilled water (75–95%). Embryos were visualized inside fresh control eggs, but not within eggs that were laid and maintained in WSMoL solution. Ovicidal activity was also assessed using stored A. aegypti eggs. The protein concentrations able to reduce the hatching rate by 50% (EC50) were 0.32, 0.16 and 0.1 mg/mL for seed extract, 0–60 protein fraction and WSMoL, respectively. The absence of hatching of stored eggs treated with WSMoL at 0.3 mg/mL (EC99) after transfer to medium without lectin indicates that embryos within the eggs were killed by WSMoL. The reduction in hatching rate of A. aegypti was not linked to decrease in bacteria population.


          WSMoL acted both as a chemical stimulant cue for ovipositing females and ovicidal agent at a given concentration. The oviposition-stimulant and ovicidal activities, combined with the previously reported larvicidal activity, make WSMoL a very interesting candidate in integrated A. aegypti control.

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          Most cited references 29

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          Repellent activity of essential oils: a review.

          Currently, the use of synthetic chemicals to control insects and arthropods raises several concerns related to environment and human health. An alternative is to use natural products that possess good efficacy and are environmentally friendly. Among those chemicals, essential oils from plants belonging to several species have been extensively tested to assess their repellent properties as a valuable natural resource. The essential oils whose repellent activities have been demonstrated, as well as the importance of the synergistic effects among their components are the main focus of this review. Essential oils are volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons with a diversity of functional groups, and their repellent activity has been linked to the presence of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. However, in some cases, these chemicals can work synergistically, improving their effectiveness. In addition, the use of other natural products in the mixture, such as vanillin, could increase the protection time, potentiating the repellent effect of some essential oils. Among the plant families with promising essential oils used as repellents, Cymbopogon spp., Ocimum spp. and Eucalyptus spp. are the most cited. Individual compounds present in these mixtures with high repellent activity include alpha-pinene, limonene, citronellol, citronellal, camphor and thymol. Finally, although from an economical point of view synthetic chemicals are still more frequently used as repellents than essential oils, these natural products have the potential to provide efficient, and safer repellents for humans and the environment.
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            Insecticidal, repellent and oviposition-deterrent activity of selected essential oils against Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus.

            Essential oils extracted from 10 medicinal plants were evaluated for larvicidal, adulticidal, ovicidal, oviposition-deterrent and repellent activities towards three mosquito species; Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The essential oils of Juniperus macropoda and Pimpinella anisum were highly effective as both larvicidal and ovicidal. The essential oil of P. anisum showed toxicity against 4th instar larvae of A. stephensi and A. aegypti with equivalent LD95 values of 115.7 microg/ml, whereas it was 149.7 microg/ml against C. quinquefasciatus larvae. Essential oils of Zingiber officinale and Rosmarinus officinalis were found to be ovicidal and repellent, respectively towards the three mosquito species. The essential oil of Cinnamomum zeylanicum resulted into highest repellent (RD95) values of 49.6, 53.9 and 44.2 mg/mat against A. stephensi, A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus, respectively apart from oviposition-deterrent potential.
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              The biology of insecticidal activity and resistance.

              Identifying insecticide resistance mechanisms is paramount for pest insect control, as the understandings that underpin insect control strategies must provide ways of detecting and managing resistance. Insecticide resistance studies rely heavily on detailed biochemical and genetic analyses. Although there have been many successes, there are also many examples of resistance that still challenge us. As a precursor to rational pest insect control, the biology of the insect, within the contexts of insecticide modes of action and insecticide metabolism, must be well understood. It makes sense to initiate this research in the best model insect system, Drosophila melanogaster, and translate these findings and methodologies to other insects. Here we explore the usefulness of the D. melanogaster model in studying metabolic-based insecticide resistances, target-site mediated resistances and identifying novel insecticide targets, whilst highlighting the importance of having a more complete understanding of insect biology for insecticide studies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                6 September 2012
                : 7
                : 9
                [1 ]Departamento de Bioquímica, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
                [2 ]Departamento de Química Fundamental, Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Natureza, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil
                New Mexico State University, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: NDLS THN DMAFN PMGP. Performed the experiments: NDLS KSM THN GKNS. Analyzed the data: NDLS KSM THN DMAFN PMGP. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: LCBBC DMAFN PMGP. Wrote the paper: NDLS THN GKNS LCBBC DMAFN PMGP.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Pages: 8
                This work was supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Ciência e Tecnologia do Estado de Pernambuco (IBPG-0063.2.08/09 to N.D.L.S. and APQ-0653-2.08/10 to P.M.G.P.; www.facepe.br), the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (L.C.B.B.C. and P.M.G.P.; www.cnpq.br), and the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior ( www.capes.gov.br). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
                Research Article
                Pest Control
                Protein Interactions
                Chemical Ecology
                Vector Biology
                Viral Vectors
                Population Biology
                Infectious Disease Epidemiology
                Infectious Diseases
                Vectors and Hosts



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