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      Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of chiral quaternary N-spiro ammonium bromides with 3′,4′-dihydro-1′H-spiro[isoindoline-2,2′-isoquinoline] skeleton

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          Abstract

          A new class of highly functionalized tetrahydroisoquinolines with a quaternary carbon stereocenter was synthesized starting from an easily accessible L-tartaric acid. Nine strains of bacteria ( Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Moraxella catarrhalis, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni ) were used for the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of synthesized compounds. The influence of analyzed compounds on viability and induction of apoptosis in human skin fibroblasts was determined. A majority of the synthesized compounds showed the strongest antibacterial properties toward some gram-negative bacteria ( M. catarrhalis and C. jejuni) with a high level of selectivity. High antibacterial compounds have bactericidal activity ratio MBC/MIC ≤4. Our studies also proved that the novel compounds do not possess cytotoxic and proapoptotic potential in normal cells.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Molecular basis of bacterial outer membrane permeability revisited.

          Gram-negative bacteria characteristically are surrounded by an additional membrane layer, the outer membrane. Although outer membrane components often play important roles in the interaction of symbiotic or pathogenic bacteria with their host organisms, the major role of this membrane must usually be to serve as a permeability barrier to prevent the entry of noxious compounds and at the same time to allow the influx of nutrient molecules. This review summarizes the development in the field since our previous review (H. Nikaido and M. Vaara, Microbiol. Rev. 49:1-32, 1985) was published. With the discovery of protein channels, structural knowledge enables us to understand in molecular detail how porins, specific channels, TonB-linked receptors, and other proteins function. We are now beginning to see how the export of large proteins occurs across the outer membrane. With our knowledge of the lipopolysaccharide-phospholipid asymmetric bilayer of the outer membrane, we are finally beginning to understand how this bilayer can retard the entry of lipophilic compounds, owing to our increasing knowledge about the chemistry of lipopolysaccharide from diverse organisms and the way in which lipopolysaccharide structure is modified by environmental conditions.
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            Mechanisms of biofilm resistance to antimicrobial agents.

             T Mah,  G O’Toole (2000)
            Biofilms are communities of microorganisms attached to a surface. It has become clear that biofilm-grown cells express properties distinct from planktonic cells, one of which is an increased resistance to antimicrobial agents. Recent work has indicated that slow growth and/or induction of an rpoS-mediated stress response could contribute to biocide resistance. The physical and/or chemical structure of exopolysaccharides or other aspects of biofilm architecture could also confer resistance by exclusion of biocides from the bacterial community. Finally, biofilm-grown bacteria might develop a biofilm-specific biocide-resistant phenotype. Owing to the heterogeneous nature of the biofilm, it is likely that there are multiple resistance mechanisms at work within a single community. Recent research has begun to shed light on how and why surface-attached microbial communities develop resistance to antimicrobial agents.
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              Quaternary ammonium biocides: efficacy in application.

               Charles Gerba (2015)
              Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2017
                05 July 2017
                : 11
                : 2015-2028
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Synthesis and Technology of Drugs
                [2 ]Department of Microbiology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok
                [3 ]Institute of Organic Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw
                [4 ]Department of Biotechnology, Medical University of Bialystok, Bialystok, Poland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Agnieszka Gornowicz, Department of Biotechnology, Medical University of Bialystok, Kilinskiego 1, 15-089 Bialystok, Poland, Tel +48 85 748 5742, Fax +48 85 748 5416, Email agnieszka.gornowicz@ 123456umb.edu.pl
                Article
                dddt-11-2015
                10.2147/DDDT.S133250
                5503491
                © 2017 Bielawski et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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