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      Varieties of Analogical Reasoning

      ,

      9th Bi-annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM9) (NDM)

      Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM9)

      23 - 26 June 2009

      Analogy, cognitive research, problem solving, scientific reasoning, computer models

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          Abstract

          Motivation – The purpose of this article is to reinvigorate debate concerning the nature of analogy and broaden the scope of current conceptions of analogy. Research approach – An analysis of the history of the concept of analogy, case studies on the use of analogy in problemsolving, cognitive research on analogy comprehension, and a naturalistic inquiry into the various functions of analogy. Findings and Implications – Psychological theories and computational models have generally relied on: (a) A single set of ontological concepts (a property called “similarity” and a structuralist categorization of types of semantic relations) (b) A single form category (i.e., the classic four-term analogy), and (c) A single set of morphological distinctions (e.g., verbal versus pictorial analogies). The taxonomy presented here distinguishes functional kinds of analogy, each of which presents an opportunity for research on aspects of reasoning that have been largely unrecognized. Originality/Value – The various functional kinds of analogy will each require their own treatment in macrocognitive theories and computational models. Take away message – The naturalistic investigation of the functions of analogy suggests that analogy is a macrocognitive phenomenon derivative of number of supporting processes, including the apperception of resemblances and distinctions, metaphor, and the balancing of semantic flexibility and inference constraint.

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          Most cited references 14

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          Explanatory coherence

           Paul Thagard (1989)
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            Relations, objects, and the composition of analogies.

            This research addresses the kinds of matching elements that determine analogical relatedness and literal similarity. Despite theoretical agreement on the importance of relational match, the empirical evidence is neither systematic nor definitive. In 3 studies, participants performed online evaluations of relatedness of sentence pairs that varied in either the object or relational match. Results show a consistent focus on relational matches as the main determinant of analogical acceptance. In addition, analogy does not require strict overall identity of relational concepts. Semantically overlapping but nonsynonymous relations were commonly accepted, but required more processing time. Finally, performance in a similarity rating task partly paralleled analogical acceptance; however, relatively more weight was given to object matches. Implications for psychological theories of analogy and similarity are addressed. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
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              Towards an understanding of the role of experience in the evolution from novice to expert

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Conference
                June 2009
                June 2009
                : 60-66
                Affiliations
                Institute for Human and Machine Cognition
                Article
                10.14236/ewic/NDM2009.5
                © Robert R. Hoffman et al. Published by BCS Learning and Development Ltd. 9th Bi-annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM9), BCS London

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                9th Bi-annual International Conference on Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM9)
                NDM
                9
                BCS London
                23 - 26 June 2009
                Electronic Workshops in Computing (eWiC)
                Naturalistic Decision Making (NDM9)
                Product
                Product Information: 1477-9358BCS Learning & Development
                Self URI (journal page): https://ewic.bcs.org/
                Categories
                Electronic Workshops in Computing

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