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      Inducing CCR5Δ32/Δ32 Homozygotes in the Human Jurkat CD4+ Cell Line and Primary CD4+ Cells by CRISPR-Cas9 Genome-Editing Technology

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          Abstract

          C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5) is the main co-receptor for HIV entry into the target CD4+ cells, and homozygous CCR5Δ32/Δ32 cells are resistant to CCR5-tropic HIV infection. However, the CCR5Δ32/Δ32 homozygous donors in populations are rare. Here we developed a simple approach to induce CCR5Δ32/Δ32 homozygotes through CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technology. Designing a pair of single-guide RNA targeting the flank region of the CCR5Δ32 mutation locus, we applied the CRISPR-Cas9 and lentiviral packaging system to successfully convert wild-type CCR5 into CCR5Δ32/Δ32 homozygotes in the human Jurkat CD4+ cell line and primary CD4+ cells, exactly the same as the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32/Δ32 mutation. The successful rate is up to 20% in Jurkat cells but less in primary CD4+ cells. The modified CCR5Δ32/Δ32 CD4+ cells are resistant to CCR5-tropic HIV infection. Whole-genome sequencing revealed no apparent off-target sites. This approach has the promise to promote HIV/AIDS therapy from the only cured unique Berlin patient to a routine autologous cell-based therapy.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Chemokine receptors as HIV-1 coreceptors: roles in viral entry, tropism, and disease.

          In addition to CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) requires a coreceptor for entry into target cells. The chemokine receptors CXCR4 and CCR5, members of the G protein-coupled receptor superfamily, have been identified as the principal coreceptors for T cell line-tropic and macrophage-tropic HIV-1 isolates, respectively. The updated coreceptor repertoire includes numerous members, mostly chemokine receptors and related orphans. These discoveries provide a new framework for understanding critical features of the basic biology of HIV-1, including the selective tropism of individual viral variants for different CD4+ target cells and the membrane fusion mechanism governing virus entry. The coreceptors also provide molecular perspectives on central puzzles of HIV-1 disease, including the selective transmission of macrophage-tropic variants, the appearance of T cell line-tropic variants in many infected persons during progression to AIDS, and differing susceptibilities of individuals to infection and disease progression. Genetic findings have yielded major insights into the in vivo roles of individual coreceptors and their ligands; of particular importance is the discovery of an inactivating mutation in the CCR5 gene which, in homozygous form, confers strong resistance to HIV-1 infection. Beyond providing new perspectives on fundamental aspects of HIV-1 transmission and pathogenesis, the coreceptors suggest new avenues for developing novel therapeutic and preventative strategies to combat the AIDS epidemic.
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            Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5Δ32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection.

            Individuals homozygous for the C-C chemokine receptor type 5 gene with 32-bp deletions (CCR5Δ32) are resistant to HIV-1 infection. In this study, we generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) homozygous for the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation through genome editing of wild-type iPSCs using a combination of transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) or RNA-guided clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas9 together with the piggyBac technology. Remarkably, TALENs or CRISPR-Cas9-mediated double-strand DNA breaks resulted in up to 100% targeting of the colonies on one allele of which biallelic targeting occurred at an average of 14% with TALENs and 33% with CRISPR. Excision of the piggyBac using transposase seamlessly reproduced exactly the naturally occurring CCR5Δ32 mutation without detectable exogenous sequences. We differentiated these modified iPSCs into monocytes/macrophages and demonstrated their resistance to HIV-1 challenge. We propose that this strategy may provide an approach toward a functional cure of HIV-1 infection.
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              Homology-driven genome editing in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells using zinc finger nuclease mRNA and AAV6 donors

              Genome editing with targeted nucleases and DNA donor templates homologous to the break site has proven challenging in human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), and particularly in the most primitive, long-term repopulating cell population. Here we report that combining electroporation of zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) mRNA with donor template delivery by AAV serotype 6 vectors directs efficient genome editing in HSPCs, achieving site-specific insertion of a GFP cassette at the CCR5 and AAVS1 loci in mobilized peripheral blood CD34+ HSPCs at mean frequencies of 17% and 26%, respectively, and in fetal liver HSPCs at 19% and 43%, respectively. Notably, this approach modified the CD34+CD133+CD90+ cell population, a minor component of CD34+ cells that contains long-term repopulating hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Genome-edited HSPCs also engrafted in immune deficient mice long-term, confirming that HSCs are targeted by this approach. Our results provide a strategy for more robust application of genome editing technologies in HSPCs.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
                Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
                American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy
                2162-2531
                17 June 2018
                07 September 2018
                17 June 2018
                : 12
                : 267-274
                Affiliations
                [1 ]School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
                [2 ]Nankai University Second People's Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University, Tianjin, China
                [3 ]National Center for AIDS/STD Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author Min Wei, Nankai University Second People’s Hospital, School of Medicine, Nankai University, No. 94 Weijin Road, Nankai District, Tianjin 300071, China. weimin@ 123456nankai.edu.cn
                Article
                S2162-2531(18)30109-4
                10.1016/j.omtn.2018.05.012
                6005807
                © 2018 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular medicine

                hiv, aids, ccr5δ, 32, crispr-cas9, cd4+ cells

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