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      Glicocálix: estructura, composición, funciones y factores que lo lesionan Translated title: Glycocalyx: Structure, Composition, Functions and Factors that Injure it

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          Abstract

          Resumen: El glicocálix endotelial o glucocálix, es una estructura descrita por primera vez en el año 1966 por Luft J. H. Esta es dinámica y tapiza el endotelio vascular. Es rica en carbohidratos, específicamente proteoglicanos, glucosaminoglicanos y glicoproteínas, los cuales se encuentran dispuestos en red y son sintetizados en la célula endotelial. Participa en el mantenimiento de la integridad vascular, y desempeña una función fundamental en la regulación de la resistencia y la permeabilidad vascular, la filtración glomerular, la permeabilidad de macromoléculas, el mantenimiento del hematócrito capilar y el flujo sanguíneo capilar, las cascadas de fibrinólisis y la coagulación vascular. Su descubrimiento y estudio ha permitido la revisión del principio clásico de Starling. Es de importancia para todo el personal de salud, conocer su estructura, composición, funciones y factores que desencadenan sus destrucción y mal funcionamiento, así como los blancos terapéuticos desde una perspectiva clínica.

          Translated abstract

          Abstract: The endothelial glycocalyx, is a structure first described in 1966 by Luft J. H. It is dynamic and covers the vascular endothelium. It is rich in carbohydrates, specifically proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans and glycoproteins, which are arranged in a network and are synthesized in the endothelial cell. It participates in the maintenance of vascular integrity and plays a fundamental role in the regulation of vascular resistance and permeability, glomerular filtration, macromolecule permeability, maintenance of capillary hematocrit and capillary blood flow, fibrinolysis cascades and vascular coagulation. Its discovery and study have allowed the revision of the classic Starling principle. It is important for all health personnel to know its structure, composition, functions and factors that trigger its destruction and malfunction, as well as therapeutic targets from a clinical perspective.

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          The endothelial glycocalyx: composition, functions, and visualization

          This review aims at presenting state-of-the-art knowledge on the composition and functions of the endothelial glycocalyx. The endothelial glycocalyx is a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins, covering the endothelium luminally. Both endothelium- and plasma-derived soluble molecules integrate into this mesh. Over the past decade, insight has been gained into the role of the glycocalyx in vascular physiology and pathology, including mechanotransduction, hemostasis, signaling, and blood cell–vessel wall interactions. The contribution of the glycocalyx to diabetes, ischemia/reperfusion, and atherosclerosis is also reviewed. Experimental data from the micro- and macrocirculation alludes at a vasculoprotective role for the glycocalyx. Assessing this possible role of the endothelial glycocalyx requires reliable visualization of this delicate layer, which is a great challenge. An overview is given of the various ways in which the endothelial glycocalyx has been visualized up to now, including first data from two-photon microscopic imaging.
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            Vascular Endothelial Cell Biology: An Update

            The vascular endothelium, a monolayer of endothelial cells (EC), constitutes the inner cellular lining of arteries, veins and capillaries and therefore is in direct contact with the components and cells of blood. The endothelium is not only a mere barrier between blood and tissues but also an endocrine organ. It actively controls the degree of vascular relaxation and constriction, and the extravasation of solutes, fluid, macromolecules and hormones, as well as that of platelets and blood cells. Through control of vascular tone, EC regulate the regional blood flow. They also direct inflammatory cells to foreign materials, areas in need of repair or defense against infections. In addition, EC are important in controlling blood fluidity, platelet adhesion and aggregation, leukocyte activation, adhesion, and transmigration. They also tightly keep the balance between coagulation and fibrinolysis and play a major role in the regulation of immune responses, inflammation and angiogenesis. To fulfill these different tasks, EC are heterogeneous and perform distinctly in the various organs and along the vascular tree. Important morphological, physiological and phenotypic differences between EC in the different parts of the arterial tree as well as between arteries and veins optimally support their specified functions in these vascular areas. This review updates the current knowledge about the morphology and function of endothelial cells, particularly their differences in different localizations around the body paying attention specifically to their different responses to physical, biochemical and environmental stimuli considering the different origins of the EC.
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              THE GLYCOCALYX AND TRAUMA: A REVIEW.

              In the United States trauma is the leading cause of mortality among those under the age of 45, claiming approximately 192,000 lives each year. Significant personal disability, lost productivity, and long-term healthcare needs are common and contribute 580 billion dollars in economic impact each year. Improving resuscitation strategies and the early acute care of trauma patients has the potential to reduce the pathological sequelae of combined exuberant inflammation and immune suppression that can co-exist, or occur temporally, and adversely affect outcomes. The endothelial and epithelial glycocalyx has emerged as an important participant in both inflammation and immunomodulation. Constituents of the glycocalyx have been used as biomarkers of injury severity and have the potential to be target(s) for therapeutic interventions aimed at immune modulation. In this review, we provide a contemporary understanding of the physiologic structure and function of the glycocalyx and its role in traumatic injury with a particular emphasis on lung injury.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                facmed
                Revista de la Facultad de Medicina (México)
                Rev. Fac. Med. (Méx.)
                Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Facultad de Medicina (Ciudad de México, Ciudad de México, Mexico )
                0026-1742
                2448-4865
                December 2021
                : 64
                : 6
                : 45-54
                Affiliations
                [2] Ciudad de México orgnameHospital HMG México
                [1] Ciudad de México orgnameCentro Nacional de Investigación y Atención en Quemados México
                Article
                S0026-17422021000600045 S0026-1742(21)06400600045
                10.22201/fm.24484865e.2021.64.6.06
                902a529d-7948-40e3-9cf2-a51c3e698817

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 13, Pages: 10
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                SciELO Mexico

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                Endotelio,proteoglycans,glycocalyx,endothelial dysfunction,Endothelium,proteoglucanos,glicocálix,disfunción endotelial

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