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      The Role of Nitric Oxide in Regulating Intestinal Redox Status and Intestinal Epithelial Cell Functionality

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          Abstract

          Important functions of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) include enabling nutrient absorption to occur passively and acting as a defense barrier against potential xenobiotic components and pathogens. A compromise to IEC function can result in the translocation of bacteria, toxins, and allergens that lead to the onset of disease. Thus, the maintenance and optimal function of IECs are critically important to ensure health. Endogenous biosynthesis of nitric oxide (NO) regulates IEC functionality both directly, through free radical activity, and indirectly through cell signaling mechanisms that impact tight junction protein expression. In this paper, we review the current knowledge on factors that regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the subsequent roles that NO has on maintaining IECs’ intestinal epithelial barrier structure, functions, and associated mechanisms of action. We also summarize important findings on the effects of bioactive dietary food components that interact with NO production and affect downstream intestinal epithelium integrity.

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          Nitric oxide synthases in mammals.

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            Anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes: A review.

            Inflammation is the first biological response of the immune system to infection, injury or irritation. Evidence suggests that the anti-inflammatory effect is mediated through the regulation of various inflammatory cytokines, such as nitric oxide, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor alpha-α, interferon gamma-γ as well as noncytokine mediator, prostaglandin E2. Fruits, vegetables, and food legumes contain high levels of phytochemicals that show anti-inflammatory effect, but their mechanisms of actions have not been completely identified. The aim of this paper was to summarize the recent investigations and findings regarding in vitro and animal model studies on the anti-inflammatory effects of fruits, vegetables, and food legumes. Specific cytokines released for specific type of physiological event might shed some light on the specific use of each source of phytochemicals that can benefit to counter the inflammatory response. As natural modulators of proinflammatory gene expressions, phytochemical from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes could be incorporated into novel bioactive anti-inflammatory formulations of various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, these phytochemicals are discussed as the natural promotion strategy for the improvement of human health status. The phenolics and triterpenoids in fruits and vegetables showed higher anti-inflammatory activity than other compounds. In food legumes, lectins and peptides had anti-inflammatory activity in most cases. However, there are lack of human study data on the anti-inflammatory activity of phytochemicals from fruits, vegetables, and food legumes.
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              Overview of cytokines and nitric oxide involvement in immuno-pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases.

              Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex disorders with undetermined etiology. Several hypotheses suggest that IBDs result from an abnormal immune response against endogenous flora and luminal antigens in genetically susceptible individuals. The dysfunction of the mucosal immune response is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD. The balance between pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-17A], anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13), and immunoregulatory cytokines (IL-10 and transforming growth factors β) is disturbed. Moreover, evidence from animal and clinical studies demonstrate a positive correlation between an increased concentration of nitric oxide (NO) and the severity of the disease. Interestingly, proinflammatory cytokines are involved in the up-regulation of inducible oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in IBD. However, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines are responsible for the negative regulation of iNOS. A positive correlation between NO production and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, IL-12, and interferon-γ) were reported in patients with IBD. This review focuses on the role of cytokines in intestinal inflammation and their relationship with NO in IBD.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                09 April 2019
                April 2019
                : 20
                : 7
                : 1755
                Affiliations
                Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4, Canada; muk@ 123456mail.ubc.ca (K.M.); tedyubca@ 123456gmail.com (S.Y.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: david.kitts@ 123456ubc.ca ; Tel.: +1-604-822-5560
                Article
                ijms-20-01755
                10.3390/ijms20071755
                6479862
                30970667
                902d744f-61ad-4aab-b17d-db3eaa6845b0
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 12 March 2019
                : 03 April 2019
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular biology
                intestinal epithelial cells,nitric oxide signaling,free radicals
                Molecular biology
                intestinal epithelial cells, nitric oxide signaling, free radicals

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