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      The Clock Drawing Test: performance among elderly with low educational level Translated title: O Teste do Desenho do Relógio: desempenho entre idosos de baixa escolaridade

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          Abstract

          OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy of four scales, and to determine the inter-rater reliability and the influence of schooling on Clock Drawing Test performance in screening for dementia in elderly with low educational level. METHOD: Design: Criterion validation, concurrent type. Setting: Outpatient unit of Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Hospital, Brazil. Participants: A total of 306 individuals (> 65 years) were assessed by a geriatrician and a neuropsychologist using functional and cognitive instruments. The diagnosis of dementia was established by consensus in a meeting between these professionals. Four different researchers blinded as to the cognitive status of the patients scored the Clock Drawing Test using Shulman's, Sunderland's, Manos', and Wolf-Klein's methods; and a fifth researcher assessed Manos' method for an inter-rater reliability study. RESULTS: The data of 211 individuals (≤ 4 years of schooling) were analyzed. The sensitivity and specificity of the four methods were similar (about 65%). The inter-rater reliability of Manos' method was excellent (ICC = 0.944). The areas under the ROC curves were small (0.657 to 0.681), and the differences between them were not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The Clock Drawing Test is a reliable but not valid test to screen for dementia in older outpatients with 4 or less years of formal schooling.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVO: Comparar a acurácia de quatro escalas de avaliação e determinar a confiabilidade inter-aferidor e a influência da escolaridade, no desempenho do Teste do Desenho do Relógio para detecção de demência em idosos com baixo nível educacional. MÉTODO: Delineamento de estudo: Validação de critério, tipo concorrente. Local de estudo: Ambulatório do Hospital da Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Participantes: 306 indivíduos (> 65 anos) submetidos à avaliação funcional e cognitiva por um geriatra e um neuropsicólogo; uma reunião de consenso entre estes profissionais avaliou a presença de demência. Quatro pesquisadores, que desconheciam o status cognitivo dos indivíduos, pontuaram o Teste do Desenho do Relógio - métodos de Shulman, Sunderland, Manos e Wolf-Klein, e um quinto pesquisador repetiu o método de Manos para o estudo de confiabilidade inter-aferidor. RESULTADOS: 211 indivíduos (≤ 4 anos de escolaridade) tiveram seus dados analisados. A sensibilidade e a especificidade dos quatro métodos foram similares e variaram em torno de 65%. A confiabilidade inter-avaliador foi excelente (ICC = 0,944). As áreas sob as curvas ROC foram pequenas (0,657 a 0,684) e as diferenças entre elas não foram estatisticamente significativas. CONCLUSÕES: O Teste do Desenho do Relógio é um instrumento confiável, mas não é válido para o rastreio de demência em pacientes idosos com quatro anos ou menos de escolaridade.

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          Most cited references 46

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          Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

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            Clock-drawing: is it the ideal cognitive screening test?

            The clock-drawing test has achieved widespread clinical use in recent years as a cognitive screening instrument and a significant amount of literature relates to its psychometric properties and clinical utility. This review aims to synthesize the available evidence and assess the value of this screening test according to well-defined criteria. A Medline and Psycho-info literature search of all languages was done from 1983 to 1998 including manual cross-referencing of bibliographies. A brief summary of all original scoring systems is provided as well as a review of replication studies. Psychometric data including correlations with other cognitive tests were recorded. Qualitative aspects of the test are also described. Among published studies, the mean sensitivity (85%) and specificity (85%) of the clock-drawing test are impressive. Correlations with the Mini-Mental State Examination and other cognitive tests was high, generally greater than r = 0.5. High levels of inter-rater and test-re-test reliability and positive predictive value are recorded and despite significant variability in the scoring systems, all report similar psychometric properties. The clock test also shows a sensitivity to cognitive change with good predictive validity. The clock-drawing test meets defined criteria for a cognitive screening instrument. It taps into a wide range of cognitive abilities including executive functions, is quick and easy to administer and score with excellent acceptability by subjects. Together with informant reports, the clock-drawing test is complementary to the widely used and validated Mini-Mental State Examination and should provide a significant advance in the early detection of dementia and in monitoring cognitive change. A simple scoring system with emphasis on the qualitative aspects of clock-drawing should maximize its utility. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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              Studies of illness in the aged. The Index of Adl: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function

               S Katz,  AB Ford,  RW Moskowitz (1963)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                rbp
                Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
                Rev. Bras. Psiquiatr.
                Associação Brasileira de Psiquiatria - ABP (São Paulo )
                1809-452X
                December 2008
                : 30
                : 4
                : 309-315
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro Brazil
                Article
                S1516-44462008000400002
                10.1590/S1516-44462008000400002
                19142404
                Product
                Product Information: website
                Categories
                PSYCHIATRY

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