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      Plasmonic nanoparticles in chemical analysis

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          Abstract

          In this review various analytical techniques utilising the plasmonic properties of silver and gold nanoparticles have been presented.

          Abstract

          Many very sensitive analytical methods utilising specific properties of plasmonic metal nanoparticles have been developed. Some of these techniques are so sensitive that observation of the reliable signal even from a single molecule of the analyte is possible. In this review article we present the most important analytical techniques based on the plasmonic properties of selected metal nanoparticles and the basic theoretical background of these analytical techniques, including the mechanism of the interaction of the electromagnetic radiation with the plasmonic nanoparticles. The analytical techniques presented in this article include methods based on the change of the optical properties of plasmonic nanoparticles caused by analyte-induced aggregation, etching or the change of the growth of plasmonic nanoparticles, and techniques utilising increased efficiency of some optical processes in the proximity of the plasmonic nanoparticles, e.g.surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), surface enhanced infra-red absorption (SEIRA), and metal enhanced fluorescence (MEF). Recently, an observed increase in the number of applications of techniques utilising surface plasmon resonance for the analysis of various industrial, biological, medical, and environmental samples allows us to predict a large increase of the significance of these techniques in the near future.

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          Most cited references 135

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          Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: concepts and chemical applications.

          Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has become a mature vibrational spectroscopic technique during the last decades and the number of applications in the chemical, material, and in particular life sciences is rapidly increasing. This Review explains the basic theory of SERS in a brief tutorial and-based on original results from recent research-summarizes fundamental aspects necessary for understanding SERS and provides examples for the preparation of plasmonic nanostructures for SERS. Chemical applications of SERS are the centerpiece of this Review. They cover a broad range of topics such as catalysis and spectroelectrochemistry, single-molecule detection, and (bio)analytical chemistry.
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            Electromagnetic fields around silver nanoparticles and dimers.

            We use the discrete dipole approximation to investigate the electromagnetic fields induced by optical excitation of localized surface plasmon resonances of silver nanoparticles, including monomers and dimers, with emphasis on what size, shape, and arrangement leads to the largest local electric field (E-field) enhancement near the particle surfaces. The results are used to determine what conditions are most favorable for producing enhancements large enough to observe single molecule surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Most of the calculations refer to triangular prisms, which exhibit distinct dipole and quadrupole resonances that can easily be controlled by varying particle size. In addition, for the dimer calculations we study the influence of dimer separation and orientation, especially for dimers that are separated by a few nanometers. We find that the largest /E/2 values for dimers are about a factor of 10 larger than those for all the monomers examined. For all particles and particle orientations, the plasmon resonances which lead to the largest E-fields are those with the longest wavelength dipolar excitation. The spacing of the particles in the dimer plays a crucial role, and we find that the spacing needed to achieve a given /E/2 is proportional to nanoparticle size for particles below 100 nm in size. Particle shape and curvature are of lesser importance, with a head to tail configuration of two triangles giving enhanced fields comparable to head to head, or rounded head to tail. The largest /E/2 values we have calculated for spacings of 2 nm or more is approximately 10(5). (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics
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              Controlling anisotropic nanoparticle growth through plasmon excitation.

              Inorganic nanoparticles exhibit size-dependent properties that are of interest for applications ranging from biosensing and catalysis to optics and data storage. They are readily available in a wide variety of discrete compositions and sizes. Shape-selective synthesis strategies now also yield shapes other than nanospheres, such as anisotropic metal nanostructures with interesting optical properties. Here we demonstrate that the previously described photoinduced method for converting silver nanospheres into triangular silver nanocrystals--so-called nanoprisms--can be extended to synthesize relatively monodisperse nanoprisms with desired edge lengths in the 30-120 nm range. The particle growth process is controlled using dual-beam illumination of the nanoparticles, and appears to be driven by surface plasmon excitations. We find that, depending on the illumination wavelengths chosen, the plasmon excitations lead either to fusion of nanoprisms in an edge-selective manner or to the growth of the nanoprisms until they reach their light-controlled final size.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                RSCACL
                RSC Advances
                RSC Adv.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2046-2069
                2017
                2017
                : 7
                : 28
                : 17559-17576
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Chemistry
                [2 ]Faculty of Chemistry
                [3 ]University of Warsaw
                [4 ]Pasteur 1
                [5 ]Poland
                Article
                10.1039/C7RA01034F
                903b83d1-4686-4e68-a4c6-fccbee6f788c
                © 2017
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7RA01034F

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