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      Consensus recommendations for the diagnosis and clinical management of Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease

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          Abstract

          <p class="first" id="d684136e387">Rosai-Dorfman-Destombes disease (RDD) is a rare non–Langerhans cell histiocytosis characterized by accumulation of activated histiocytes within affected tissues. RDD, which now belongs to the R group of the 2016 revised histiocytosis classification, is a widely heterogeneous entity with a range of clinical phenotypes occurring in isolation or in association with autoimmune or malignant diseases. Recent studies have found <i>NRAS</i>, <i>KRAS</i>, <i>MAP2K1</i>, and <i>ARAF</i> mutations in lesional tissues, raising the possibility of a clonal origin in some forms of RDD. More than 1000 reports have been published in the English literature; however, there is a lack of consensus regarding approach for the clinical management of RDD. Although in most cases RDD can be observed or treated with local therapies, some patients with refractory or multifocal disease experience morbidity and mortality. Here we provide the first consensus multidisciplinary recommendations for the diagnosis and management of RDD. These recommendations were discussed at the 32nd Histiocyte Society Meeting by an international group of academic clinicians and pathologists with expertise in RDD. We include guidelines for clinical, laboratory, pathologic, and radiographic evaluation of patients with RDD together with treatment recommendations based on clinical experience and review of the literature. </p>

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          Most cited references73

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          High prevalence of BRAF V600E mutations in Erdheim-Chester disease but not in other non-Langerhans cell histiocytoses.

          Histiocytoses are rare disorders of unknown origin with highly heterogeneous prognosis. BRAF mutations have been observed in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). We investigated the frequency of BRAF mutations in several types of histiocytoses. Histology from 127 patients with histiocytoses were reviewed. Detection of BRAF(V600) mutations was performed by pyrosequencing of DNA extracted from paraffin embedded samples. Diagnoses of Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD), LCH, Rosai-Dorfman disease, juvenile xanthogranuloma, histiocytic sarcoma, xanthoma disseminatum, interdigitating dendritic cell sarcoma, and necrobiotic xanthogranuloma were performed in 46, 39, 23, 12, 3, 2, 1, and 1 patients, respectively. BRAF status was obtained in 93 cases. BRAF(V600E) mutations were detected in 13 of 24 (54%) ECD, 11 of 29 (38%) LCH, and none of the other histiocytoses. Four patients with ECD died of disease. The high frequency of BRAF(V600E) in LCH and ECD suggests a common origin of these diseases. Treatment with vemurafenib should be investigated in patients with malignant BRAF(V600E) histiocytosis.
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            Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical management of Erdheim-Chester disease.

            Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, non-Langerhans histiocytosis. Recent findings suggest that ECD is a clonal disorder, marked by recurrent BRAFV600E mutations in >50% of patients, in which chronic uncontrolled inflammation is an important mediator of disease pathogenesis. Although ∼500 to 550 cases have been described in the literature to date, increased physician awareness has driven a dramatic increase in ECD diagnoses over the last decade. ECD frequently involves multiple organ systems and has historically lacked effective therapies. Given the protean clinical manifestations and the lack of a consensus-derived approach for the management of ECD, we provide here the first multidisciplinary consensus guidelines for the clinical management of ECD. These recommendations were outlined at the First International Medical Symposium for ECD, comprised of a comprehensive group of international academicians with expertise in the pathophysiology and therapy of ECD. Detailed recommendations on the initial clinical, laboratory, and radiographic assessment of ECD patients are presented in addition to treatment recommendations based on critical appraisal of the literature and clinical experience. These formalized consensus descriptions will hopefully facilitate ongoing and future research efforts in this disorder.
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              Mutually exclusive recurrent somatic mutations in MAP2K1 and BRAF support a central role for ERK activation in LCH pathogenesis.

              Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by lesions composed of pathological CD207(+) dendritic cells with an inflammatory infiltrate. BRAFV600E remains the only recurrent mutation reported in LCH. In order to evaluate the spectrum of somatic mutations in LCH, whole exome sequencing was performed on matched LCH and normal tissue samples obtained from 41 patients. Lesions from other histiocytic disorders, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Erdheim-Chester disease, and Rosai-Dorfman disease were also evaluated. All of the lesions from histiocytic disorders were characterized by an extremely low overall rate of somatic mutations. Notably, 33% (7/21) of LCH cases with wild-type BRAF and none (0/20) with BRAFV600E harbored somatic mutations in MAP2K1 (6 in-frame deletions and 1 missense mutation) that induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in vitro. Single cases of somatic mutations of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway genes ARAF and ERBB3 were also detected. The ability of MAPK pathway inhibitors to suppress MAPK kinase and ERK phosphorylation in cell culture and primary tumor models was dependent on the specific LCH mutation. The findings of this study support a model in which ERK activation is a universal end point in LCH arising from pathological activation of upstream signaling proteins. © 2014 by The American Society of Hematology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Blood
                Blood
                American Society of Hematology
                0006-4971
                1528-0020
                June 28 2018
                June 28 2018
                June 28 2018
                May 02 2018
                : 131
                : 26
                : 2877-2890
                Article
                10.1182/blood-2018-03-839753
                6024636
                29720485
                9046e0b9-49c9-443d-9957-c654c881d027
                © 2018

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