Many factors, such as heredity, ethnicity, nutrition and other lifestyle factors, have been related to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Additionally, bone mass has been significantly associated with decreased estrogen levels. However, fewstudies have been conducted on premenopausal women. The present study was designed to estimate the relationship between low bone mineral density and levels of serum estradiol and lifestyle factors in premenopausal Mexican women.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in 270 women between 40 and 48 years of age who participate in the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Body mass index and serum estradiol were measured with standard procedures; bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were computed to evaluate the relationship between low bone mineral density and levels of serum estradiol and lifestyle factors.
In linear regression analysis levels of estradiol, body mass index, physical activity, and vitamin D intake were positively related to bone mineral density. Age, cigarette smoking and caffeine were inversely associated with BMD. Finally, the odds of low bone mineral density increase significantly when the premenopausal women had low levels of serum estradiol (OR = 4.93, 95 % CI: 2.14, 11.37).