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Levels of serum estradiol and lifestyle factors related with bone mineral density in premenopausal Mexican women: a cross-sectional analysis

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      Many factors, such as heredity, ethnicity, nutrition and other lifestyle factors, have been related to bone mineral density in postmenopausal women. Additionally, bone mass has been significantly associated with decreased estrogen levels. However, fewstudies have been conducted on premenopausal women. The present study was designed to estimate the relationship between low bone mineral density and levels of serum estradiol and lifestyle factors in premenopausal Mexican women.


      A cross-sectional study was conducted in 270 women between 40 and 48 years of age who participate in the Health Workers Cohort Study. Information on socio-demographic and lifestyle factors were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire. Body mass index and serum estradiol were measured with standard procedures; bone mineral density was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were computed to evaluate the relationship between low bone mineral density and levels of serum estradiol and lifestyle factors.


      In linear regression analysis levels of estradiol, body mass index, physical activity, and vitamin D intake were positively related to bone mineral density. Age, cigarette smoking and caffeine were inversely associated with BMD. Finally, the odds of low bone mineral density increase significantly when the premenopausal women had low levels of serum estradiol (OR = 4.93, 95 % CI: 2.14, 11.37).


      These data support that low serum estradiol, advancing age, lower physical activity, lower vitamin D intake, cigarette smoking, and higher amount of caffeine intake are linked to low bone mineral density in premenopausal Mexican women.

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      Most cited references 34

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            Author and article information

            [1 ]Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca, Estado de México Mexico
            [2 ]Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital Infantil de México “Federico Gómez”, Calle Dr. Márquez No.162, Del. Cuahtemoc, Col. Doctores, C.P., 06720 Ciudad de México, Mexico
            [3 ]Unidad de Investigación Médica en Epidemiología Clínica, Hospital de Especialidades Centro Médico Nacional Siglo XXI, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, Mexico
            [4 ]Unidad de Investigación Médica en Medicina Reproductiva, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Ciudad de México, Mexico
            [5 ]Comité Mexicano para la prevención de la Osteoporosis, Ciudad de México, Mexico
            [6 ]Área Académica de Nutrición, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Pachuca, Hidalgo Mexico
            [7 ]Unidad de Investigación Epidemiológica y en Servicios de Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Morelos, Mexico
            [8 ]Centro de Investigación en Salud Poblacional, Instituto Nacional de Salud Pública, Cuernavaca, Morelos Mexico
            BMC Musculoskelet Disord
            BMC Musculoskelet Disord
            BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
            BioMed Central (London )
            19 October 2016
            19 October 2016
            : 17
            27756278 5069822 1273 10.1186/s12891-016-1273-7
            © The Author(s). 2016

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Funded by: FundRef, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México;
            Award ID: 1860/2004
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            Research Article
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            © The Author(s) 2016


            serum estradiol, bone mineral density, premenopausal, mexican women


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