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      FGF-23 and sFRP-4 in Chronic Kidney Disease and Post-Renal Transplantation

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          Background: The phosphatonins fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) and FRP-4 are inhibitors of tubular phosphate reabsorption that may play a role in the hyperphosphatemia associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) or in the hypophosphatemia associated with renal transplants. Methods: Plasma FGF-23, FRP-4, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone were measured in patients at all stages of CKD. Phosphate regulation of FGF-23 and secreted frizzled related protein-4 (sFRP-4) was examined in end-stage renal disease patients in the presence and absence of therapeutic phosphate binder usage. In renal transplant patients, plasma FGF-23, sFRP-4 and phosphorus concentrations were determined before and 4–5 days after transplantation. Results: Plasma FGF-23 correlated with creatinine clearance (r<sup>2</sup> = –0.584, p < 0.0001) and plasma phosphorus (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.347, p < 0.001) in CKD patients and with plasma phosphorus (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.448, p < 0.001) in end-stage renal disease patients. Phosphate binder withdrawal increased FGF-23 levels. In kidney transplant patients, dramatic decreases in FGF-23 (–88.8 ± 5.4%) and phosphorus (–64 ± 10.2%) were observed by 4–5 days post-transplantation. In patients with post-transplant hypophosphatemia, FGF-23 levels correlated inversely with plasma phosphorus (r<sup>2</sup> = 0.661, p < 0.05). sFRP-4 levels did not change with creatinine clearance or hyperphosphatemia in CKD or end-stage renal disease patients, and no relation was noted between post-transplant sFRP-4 levels and hypophosphatemia. Conclusions: In CKD, FGF-23 levels rose with decreasing creatinine clearance rates and increasing plasma phosphorus levels, and rapidly decreased post-transplantation suggesting FGF-23 is cleared by the kidney. Residual FGF-23 may contribute to the hypophosphatemia in post-transplant patients.

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          Most cited references 49

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          Autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets is associated with mutations in FGF23.

          Proper serum phosphate concentrations are maintained by a complex and poorly understood process. Identification of genes responsible for inherited disorders involving disturbances in phosphate homeostasis may provide insight into the pathways that regulate phosphate balance. Several hereditary disorders of isolated phosphate wasting have been described, including X-linked hypophosphataemic rickets (XLH), hypophosphataemic bone disease (HBD), hereditary hypophosphataemic rickets with hypercalciuria (HHRH) and autosomal dominant hypophosphataemic rickets (ADHR). Inactivating mutations of the gene PHEX, encoding a member of the neutral endopeptidase family of proteins, are responsible for XLH (refs 6,7). ADHR (MIM 193100) is characterized by low serum phosphorus concentrations, rickets, osteomalacia, lower extremity deformities, short stature, bone pain and dental abscesses. Here we describe a positional cloning approach used to identify the ADHR gene which included the annotation of 37 genes within 4 Mb of genomic sequence. We identified missense mutations in a gene encoding a new member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, FGF23. These mutations in patients with ADHR represent the first mutations found in a human FGF gene.
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            Cloning and characterization of FGF23 as a causative factor of tumor-induced osteomalacia.

            Tumor-induced osteomalacia (TIO) is one of the paraneoplastic diseases characterized by hypophosphatemia caused by renal phosphate wasting. Because removal of responsible tumors normalizes phosphate metabolism, an unidentified humoral phosphaturic factor is believed to be responsible for this syndrome. To identify the causative factor of TIO, we obtained cDNA clones that were abundantly expressed only in a tumor causing TIO and constructed tumor-specific cDNA contigs. Based on the sequence of one major contig, we cloned 2,270-bp cDNA, which turned out to encode fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). Administration of recombinant FGF23 decreased serum phosphate in mice within 12 h. When Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing FGF23 were s.c. implanted into nude mice, hypophosphatemia with increased renal phosphate clearance was observed. In addition, a high level of serum alkaline phosphatase, low 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, deformity of bone, and impairment of body weight gain became evident. Histological examination showed marked increase of osteoid and widening of growth plate. Thus, continuous production of FGF23 reproduced clinical, biochemical, and histological features of TIO in vivo. Analyses for recombinant FGF23 products produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells indicated proteolytic cleavage of FGF23 at the RXXR motif. Recent genetic study indicates that missense mutations in this RXXR motif of FGF23 are responsible for autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, another hypophosphatemic disease with similar features to TIO. We conclude that overproduction of FGF23 causes TIO, whereas mutations in the FGF23 gene result in autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets possibly by preventing proteolytic cleavage and enhancing biological activity of FGF23.
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              Accelerated atherosclerosis in prolonged maintenance hemodialysis.


                Author and article information

                Nephron Physiol
                Nephron Physiology
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                14 August 2006
                : 104
                : 1
                : p23-p32
                aRenal Division, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Mo., bApplied Genomics, Genzyme, Framingham, Mass. cMayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minn., USA
                93277 Nephron Physiol 2006;104:p23–p32
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 11, References: 65, Pages: 1
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