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      Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Black Soldier Fly ( Hermetia illucens) Larvae Oil on Broiler Health

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          Abstract

          Insects are a potential source of proteins and fats which can be incorporated into diets of broiler chickens. Accordingly, black soldier fly larvae oil (BSFLO) needs to be tested as an appropriate fat source to produce healthy chickens for consumers. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the replacement of soybean oil (SBO) with BSFLO in broiler diets on intestinal health and blood profiles. A total of 210 one-day-old male broilers were randomly allocated to three dietary treatments (10 replicates of seven birds per group): a control diet and two experimental diets in which SBO was replaced with 50% (50 BSFLO) or 100% (100 BSFLO) BSFLO. At the end of the study (35 days), 18 birds (six broilers per treatment) were slaughtered to determine the intestinal morphology, digestibility, and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profile. Blood samples were collected from 24 randomly selected birds (eight broilers per treatment) to determine the blood profiles. BSFLO supplementation positively affected villus height but did not affect digestibility. BSFLO showed no adverse effects on the VFA and blood profiles. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that SBO can be replaced by BSFLO without any adverse effects on broiler health.

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          Regulation of intestinal epithelial permeability by tight junctions.

          The gastrointestinal epithelium forms the boundary between the body and external environment. It effectively provides a selective permeable barrier that limits the permeation of luminal noxious molecules, such as pathogens, toxins, and antigens, while allowing the appropriate absorption of nutrients and water. This selective permeable barrier is achieved by intercellular tight junction (TJ) structures, which regulate paracellular permeability. Disruption of the intestinal TJ barrier, followed by permeation of luminal noxious molecules, induces a perturbation of the mucosal immune system and inflammation, and can act as a trigger for the development of intestinal and systemic diseases. In this context, much effort has been taken to understand the roles of extracellular factors, including cytokines, pathogens, and food factors, for the regulation of the intestinal TJ barrier. Here, I discuss the regulation of the intestinal TJ barrier together with its implications for the pathogenesis of diseases.
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            State-of-the-art on use of insects as animal feed

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              From the gut to the peripheral tissues: the multiple effects of butyrate.

              Butyrate is a natural substance present in biological liquids and tissues. The present paper aims to give an update on the biological role of butyrate in mammals, when it is naturally produced by the gastrointestinal microbiota or orally ingested as a feed additive. Recent data concerning butyrate production delivery as well as absorption by the colonocytes are reported. Butyrate cannot be detected in the peripheral blood, which indicates fast metabolism in the gut wall and/or in the liver. In physiological conditions, the increase in performance in animals could be explained by the increased nutrient digestibility, the stimulation of the digestive enzyme secretions, a modification of intestinal luminal microbiota and an improvement of the epithelial integrity and defence systems. In the digestive tract, butyrate can act directly (upper gastrointestinal tract or hindgut) or indirectly (small intestine) on tissue development and repair. Direct trophic effects have been demonstrated mainly by cell proliferation studies, indicating a faster renewal of necrotic areas. Indirect actions of butyrate are believed to involve the hormono-neuro-immuno system. Butyrate has also been implicated in down-regulation of bacteria virulence, both by direct effects on virulence gene expression and by acting on cell proliferation of the host cells. In animal production, butyrate is a helpful feed additive, especially when ingested soon after birth, as it enhances performance and controls gut health disorders caused by bacterial pathogens. Such effects could be considered for new applications in human nutrition.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Poult Sci
                J Poult Sci
                jpsa
                jpsa
                The Journal of Poultry Science
                Japan Poultry Science Association
                1346-7395
                1349-0486
                25 October 2021
                : 58
                : 4
                : 222-229
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Animal Nutrition & Physiology Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration , Wanju 55365, Korea
                [2 ] Animal Welfare Team, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration , Wanju 55365, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Dr. Sang Yun Ji, National Institute of Animal Science, Rural Development Administration , Wanju 55365, Korea. (E-mail: syjee@ 123456korea.kr )
                Article
                10.2141/jpsa.0200070
                8630405
                34899017
                906c6094-e503-4632-8047-1b8fe0aef927

                The Journal of Poultry Science is an Open Access journal distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. To view the details of this license, please visit ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/).

                History
                : 31 July 2020
                : 15 October 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 6, References: 47, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Full Papers

                blood profile,digestibility,morphology,soybean oil,volatile fatty acid

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