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      Application and Kinetics of Ozone in Food Preservation

      1 , 2 , 1 , 3 , 1
      Ozone: Science & Engineering
      Informa UK Limited

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          Microbiological Aspects of Ozone Applications in Food: A Review

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            Application of ozone for enhancing the microbiological safety and quality of foods: a review.

            Ozone (O3) is a strong antimicrobial agent with numerous potential applications in the food industry. High reactivity, penetrability, and spontaneous decomposition to a nontoxic product (i.e., O2) make ozone a viable disinfectant for ensuring the microbiological safety of food products. Ozone has been used for decades in many countries and recently, the generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status of this gas has been reaffirmed in the United States. Ozone, in the gaseous or aqueous phases, is effective against the majority of microorganisms tested by numerous research groups. Relatively low concentrations of ozone and short contact time are sufficient to inactivate bacteria, molds, yeasts, parasites, and viruses. However, rates of inactivation are greater in ozone demand-free systems than when the medium contains oxidizable organic substances. Susceptibility of microorganisms to ozone also varies with the physiological state of the culture, pH of the medium, temperature, humidity, and presence of additives (e.g., acids, surfactants, and sugars). Ozone applications in the food industry are mostly related to decontamination of product surface and water treatment. Ozone has been used with mixed success to inactivate contaminant microflora on meat, poultry, eggs, fish, fruits, vegetables, and dry foods. The gas also is useful in detoxification and elimination of mycotoxins and pesticide residues from some agricultural products. Excessive use of ozone, however, may cause oxidation of some ingredients on food surface. This usually results in discoloration and deterioration of food flavor. Additional research is needed to elucidate the kinetics and mechanisms of microbial inactivation by ozone and to optimize its use in food applications.
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              Insects breathe discontinuously to avoid oxygen toxicity.

              The respiratory organs of terrestrial insects consist of tracheal tubes with external spiracular valves that control gas exchange. Despite their relatively high metabolic rate, many insects have highly discontinuous patterns of gas exchange, including long periods when the spiracles are fully closed. Two explanations have previously been put forward to explain this behaviour: first, that this pattern serves to reduce respiratory water loss, and second, that the pattern may have initially evolved in underground insects as a way of dealing with hypoxic or hypercapnic conditions. Here we propose a third possible explanation based on the idea that oxygen is necessary for oxidative metabolism but also acts as a toxic chemical that can cause oxidative damage of tissues even at relatively low concentrations. At physiologically normal partial pressures of CO2, the rate of CO2 diffusion out of the insect respiratory system is slower than the rate of O2 entry; this leads to a build-up of intratracheal CO2. The spiracles must therefore be opened at intervals to rid the insect of accumulated CO2, a process that exposes the tissues to dangerously high levels of O2. We suggest that the cyclical pattern of open and closed spiracles observed in resting insects is a necessary consequence of the need to rid the respiratory system of accumulated CO2, followed by the need to reduce oxygen toxicity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ozone: Science & Engineering
                Ozone: Science & Engineering
                Informa UK Limited
                0191-9512
                1547-6545
                February 06 2017
                March 04 2017
                December 12 2016
                March 04 2017
                : 39
                : 2
                : 115-126
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Physiology, Biochemistry and Post Harvest Technology Division, ICAR–Central Plantation Crops Research Institute, Kasaragod, 671 124, India
                [2 ]Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, North Dakota State University, Fargo, North Dakota 58102, USA
                [3 ]Department of Food and Agricultural Process Engineering, Kelappaji College of Agricultural Engineering & Technology, Tavanur, 679 573, India
                Article
                10.1080/01919512.2016.1268947
                9071519f-6dbc-4fa4-8bfa-74791c4c28b9
                © 2017
                History

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