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      Vasopressin: Deficiency, Excess and the Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion

      Nephron

      S. Karger AG

      Diabetes insipidus, Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion

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          Abstract

          The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system functions to maintain plasma osmolality within narrow limits. It also is an important mechanism in maintaining normal body fluid volume. The system exerts its influence via release or inhibition of vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone, ADH) which acts on the kidney to decrease water excretion. Deficiency of ADH is usually due to hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal lesions (central diabetes insipidus) or insensitivity of the kidney to ADH (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus). These patients, if untreated, have the predictable result of dehydration, hyperosmolality, hypovolemia, and eventual death in severe cases. On the other hand, ADH excess of the syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion due to a variety of causes promotes water retention, hypoosmolality and hyponatremia which, if untreated, may progress to convulsions, coma, and death. It is obviously important to diagnose accurately these pathologic states of hydration. Not only is initiation of treatment in general dependent upon recognition of the disease, but each type of pathologic hydration state has specific treatment which rewards both patient and physician with effective correction of the problem.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          NEF
          Nephron
          10.1159/issn.1660-8151
          Nephron
          S. Karger AG
          978-3-8055-3001-9
          978-3-318-02137-0
          1660-8151
          2235-3186
          1979
          1979
          02 December 2008
          : 23
          : 2-3
          : 125-129
          Affiliations
          Medical College of Virginia, Richmond, Va.
          Article
          181621 Nephron 1979;23:125–129
          10.1159/000181621
          108606
          © 1979 S. Karger AG, Basel

          Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

          Page count
          Pages: 5
          Categories
          Steroid and Mineral Metabolism

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