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      White light emitting diode induces autophagy in hippocampal neuron cells through GSK-3-mediated GR and RORα pathways

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          Autophagy plays an important role in cell survival under diverse stress conditions. Here, we show that white LED light exposure for 24 h significantly activated autophagy-related genes and increased autophagosome formation in hippocampal neural cells (HT-22). Concurrently, the rhythmic pattern of clock-related gene expression was disrupted, which was associated with augmented expression of SIRT1, AMPK and retinoid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORα). SR1001, a specific inhibitor of RORα, protected the cells from light-induced activation of autophagy. Moreover, light exposure increased glucocorticoid receptor (GR) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. GR inhibitor RU486 prevented light-induced up-regulation of RORα and the activation of autophagy. These changes were associated with enhanced glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) activity and its specific inhibitor CHIR-99021 significantly rescued light-induced autophagy and augmented GR, RORα and autophagy-related proteins. Furthermore, GSK-3 was identified as an upstream regulator of GR/RORα signaling as it was not affected by GR or RORα inhibitors. Taken together, our data demonstrate that GSK-3-mediated GR/RORα signaling pathway is involved in white LED light-induced autophagy in hippocampal neuron cells.

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          Most cited references 42

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          LC3, a mammalian homologue of yeast Apg8p, is localized in autophagosome membranes after processing.

          Little is known about the protein constituents of autophagosome membranes in mammalian cells. Here we demonstrate that the rat microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3), a homologue of Apg8p essential for autophagy in yeast, is associated to the autophagosome membranes after processing. Two forms of LC3, called LC3-I and -II, were produced post-translationally in various cells. LC3-I is cytosolic, whereas LC3-II is membrane bound. The autophagic vacuole fraction prepared from starved rat liver was enriched with LC3-II. Immunoelectron microscopy on LC3 revealed specific labelling of autophagosome membranes in addition to the cytoplasmic labelling. LC3-II was present both inside and outside of autophagosomes. Mutational analyses suggest that LC3-I is formed by the removal of the C-terminal 22 amino acids from newly synthesized LC3, followed by the conversion of a fraction of LC3-I into LC3-II. The amount of LC3-II is correlated with the extent of autophagosome formation. LC3-II is the first mammalian protein identified that specifically associates with autophagosome membranes.
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            Autophagy in infection, inflammation and immunity.

            Autophagy is a fundamental eukaryotic pathway that has multiple effects on immunity. Autophagy is induced by pattern recognition receptors and, through autophagic adaptors, it provides a mechanism for the elimination of intracellular microorganisms. Autophagy controls inflammation through regulatory interactions with innate immune signalling pathways, by removing endogenous inflammasome agonists and through effects on the secretion of immune mediators. Moreover, autophagy contributes to antigen presentation and to T cell homeostasis, and it affects T cell repertoires and polarization. Thus, as we discuss in this Review, autophagy has multitiered immunological functions that influence infection, inflammation and immunity.
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              Circadian rhythms from multiple oscillators: lessons from diverse organisms.

              The organization of biological activities into daily cycles is universal in organisms as diverse as cyanobacteria, fungi, algae, plants, flies, birds and man. Comparisons of circadian clocks in unicellular and multicellular organisms using molecular genetics and genomics have provided new insights into the mechanisms and complexity of clock systems. Whereas unicellular organisms require stand-alone clocks that can generate 24-hour rhythms for diverse processes, organisms with differentiated tissues can partition clock function to generate and coordinate different rhythms. In both cases, the temporal coordination of a multi-oscillator system is essential for producing robust circadian rhythms of gene expression and biological activity.

                Author and article information

                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Aging (Albany NY)
                Impact Journals
                31 March 2019
                28 March 2019
                : 11
                : 6
                : 1832-1849
                [1 ]MOE Joint International Research Laboratory of Animal Health and Food Safety, College of Veterinary Medicine, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, P. R. China
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Animal Physiology and Biochemistry, Nanjing Agricultural University , Nanjing 210095, P. R. China
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Ruqian Zhao; email: zhao.ruqian@
                Copyright © 2019 Yang et al.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Paper

                Cell biology

                rorα, white led light, autophagy, gsk-3, glucocorticoid receptor


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