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      Depression, risk factors, and coping strategies in the context of social dislocations resulting from the second wave of COVID-19 in Japan

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          Abstract

          Background

          Social dislocations resulting from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic have been prolonged, which has led to general population social suppression. The present study aimed to reveal risk factors associated with mental health problems and suggest concrete coping strategies in the context of COVID-19.

          Methods

          A web-based survey was conducted in July when Japan was experiencing a second wave of COVID-19. Demographics, Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), state anger, anger control, and the Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced were measured. Multivariate logistic regression analysis on PHQ-9 scores by set variables was conducted.

          Results

          The participants were 2708 individuals, and 18.35% of them were depressed. Logistic regression analysis showed that in the order of odds ratios (ORs), underlying disease (OR = 1.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.32–2.92), not working (OR = 1.85, CI = 1.22–2.80), negative economic impact (OR = 1.33, CI = 1.01–1.77), state anger (OR = 1.17, CI = 1.14–1.21), anger control (OR = 1.08, CI = 1.04–1.13), age (OR = 0.97, CI = 0.96–0.98), high income (OR = 0.45, CI = 0.25–0.80), and being married (OR = 0.53, CI = 0.38–0.74) were predictors of depressive symptoms. Regarding coping strategies, planning (OR = 0.84, CI = 0.74–0.94), use of instrumental support (OR = 0.85, CI = 0.76–0.95), denial (OR = 0.88, CI = 0.77–0.99), behavioural disengagement (OR = 1.28, CI = 1.13–1.44), and self-blame (OR = 1.47, CI = 1.31–1.65) were associated with probable depression.

          Conclusions

          During prolonged psychological distress caused by COVID-19 pandemic, the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Japan was two to nine times as high as before the COVID-19 pandemic, even though Japan was not a lockdown country. Although some coping strategies were useful for maintaining mental health, such as developing ways, alone or with others, to address or avoid social dislocations, the influence of demographics was more powerful than these coping strategies, and medical treatments are needed for high-risk individuals.

          Supplementary Information

          The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s12888-021-03047-y.

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          Most cited references60

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          G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences

          G*Power (Erdfelder, Faul, & Buchner, 1996) was designed as a general stand-alone power analysis program for statistical tests commonly used in social and behavioral research. G*Power 3 is a major extension of, and improvement over, the previous versions. It runs on widely used computer platforms (i.e., Windows XP, Windows Vista, and Mac OS X 10.4) and covers many different statistical tests of the t, F, and chi2 test families. In addition, it includes power analyses for z tests and some exact tests. G*Power 3 provides improved effect size calculators and graphic options, supports both distribution-based and design-based input modes, and offers all types of power analyses in which users might be interested. Like its predecessors, G*Power 3 is free.
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            The PHQ-9: validity of a brief depression severity measure.

            While considerable attention has focused on improving the detection of depression, assessment of severity is also important in guiding treatment decisions. Therefore, we examined the validity of a brief, new measure of depression severity. The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) is a self-administered version of the PRIME-MD diagnostic instrument for common mental disorders. The PHQ-9 is the depression module, which scores each of the 9 DSM-IV criteria as "0" (not at all) to "3" (nearly every day). The PHQ-9 was completed by 6,000 patients in 8 primary care clinics and 7 obstetrics-gynecology clinics. Construct validity was assessed using the 20-item Short-Form General Health Survey, self-reported sick days and clinic visits, and symptom-related difficulty. Criterion validity was assessed against an independent structured mental health professional (MHP) interview in a sample of 580 patients. As PHQ-9 depression severity increased, there was a substantial decrease in functional status on all 6 SF-20 subscales. Also, symptom-related difficulty, sick days, and health care utilization increased. Using the MHP reinterview as the criterion standard, a PHQ-9 score > or =10 had a sensitivity of 88% and a specificity of 88% for major depression. PHQ-9 scores of 5, 10, 15, and 20 represented mild, moderate, moderately severe, and severe depression, respectively. Results were similar in the primary care and obstetrics-gynecology samples. In addition to making criteria-based diagnoses of depressive disorders, the PHQ-9 is also a reliable and valid measure of depression severity. These characteristics plus its brevity make the PHQ-9 a useful clinical and research tool.
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              Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

              Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                fukase@kitasato-u.ac.jp
                Journal
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BMC Psychiatry
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-244X
                12 January 2021
                12 January 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 33
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.410786.c, ISNI 0000 0000 9206 2938, Kitasato University School of Allied Health Sciences, ; Kitazato 1-15-1, Minami-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-0373 Japan
                Article
                3047
                10.1186/s12888-021-03047-y
                7802816
                33435930
                908038a4-79be-47be-bb9e-17038ccbd3cb
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 23 September 2020
                : 1 January 2021
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Clinical Psychology & Psychiatry
                the second wave of covid-19,mental health,prevalence,general population,risk factor for increased depression,coping strategies

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