Altica deserticola (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is a monophagous insect that feeds on, and is thus a harmful pest of, liquorice. Both adults and larvae feed on leaves, causing serious damage to leaf blades. It will even lead to the extinction of liquorice, resulting in significant economic losses. Leaf-disc tests were used to determine the feeding preference of A. deserticola on leaves of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and G. glabra and explore the underlying mechanism of liquorice feeding resistance to A. deserticola by comparing leaf hardness and thickness, cuticle thickness, and nitrogen and tannin content in the two plants. The results showed that larvae and adults have the same feeding preferences, i.e., both preferably fed on G. uralensis, indicating a higher resistance in this species. The hardness, thickness, and the thickness of the stratum corneum of the leaves of G. glabra were significantly greater than those of G. uralensis. Nitrogen content was higher in G. uralensis, while total tannin, tannic acid, and catechin content were higher in G. glabra. The thick cuticle and hard texture of G. glabra leaves may be an important physical trait for effectively resisting A. deserticola feeding, while high tannin and low nitrogen content may also be important.