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      Coagulation-Flocculation of Aquaculture Wastewater Using Green Coagulant from Garcinia kola Seeds: Parametric Studies, Kinetic Modelling and Cost Analysis

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      Sustainability

      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          To achieve sustainability, it is necessary to use proper treatment methods to reduce the pollutant loads of receiving waters. This study investigates the coagulative reduction of turbidity, COD, BOD and colour from aquaculture wastewater (AW) using a novel Garcinia kola seeds coagulant (GKC). This coagulant was obtained from extraction of Garcinia kola seeds and analysed for its spectral and morphological characteristics through FTIR and SEM. The kinetics of coagulation-flocculation were also investigated in terms of total dissolved and suspended solids (TDSP). The seeds had 11.27% protein and 68.33% carbohydrate, showing usability in adsorption/charges neutralisation as a coagulant to reduce particles. Maximal turbidity reduction = 81.93%, COD = 75.03%, BOD = 72.84% and colour = 56.69% at 0.3 g GKC/L, pH 2, 60 min and 303 K were achieved. Von Smoluchowski’s second-order peri-kinetics theory was used to fit the results, giving R2 > 0.9. At a coagulation order (α) of 2, the reaction rate (KC) and half-life (τS1/2) were 0.0003 L/g·min and 25.3 min at the optimal conditions. The sorption data better fit the Lagergren compared to the Ho adsorption model. Furthermore, the net cost of using GKC to handle 1 L of AW (including electricity and material costs) was calculated to be 1.57 EUR, and the costs of 0.3 g/L GKC preparation and energy were 0.27 and 1.30 EUR, respectively. In summary, these seeds can be used to pre-treat AW.

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          Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes

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              Versuch einer mathematischen Theorie der Koagulationskinetik kolloider Lösungen

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
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                Journal
                SUSTDE
                Sustainability
                Sustainability
                MDPI AG
                2071-1050
                August 2021
                August 16 2021
                : 13
                : 16
                : 9177
                Article
                10.3390/su13169177
                908a6953-afa3-41a4-85e0-c4ff6bcd1e1b
                © 2021
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