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      Management of Lupus Nephropathy

      Nephron Clinical Practice

      S. Karger AG

      Systemic lupus erythematosus nephritis, Systemic lupus erythematosus treatment

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          Abstract

          This review is an evidence- and experience-based approach to the management of SLE, particularly its kidney manifestations. Specific protocols in substantial clinical detail are provided for management and monitoring, according to the severity of the SLE manifestations. The protocols are adapted from those used in a major SLE trial. The adaptations are based on subsequent extensive clinical use of these protocols. Also described is the concomitant use of cardio- and kidney-protective therapies to optimize patient outcomes.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil in patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis. Hong Kong-Guangzhou Nephrology Study Group.

          The combination of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone is effective for the treatment of severe lupus nephritis but has serious adverse effects. Whether mycophenolate mofetil can be substituted for cyclophosphamide is not known. In 42 patients with diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis we compared the efficacy and side effects of a regimen of prednisolone and mycophenolate mofetil given for 12 months with those of a regimen of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide given for 6 months, followed by prednisolone and azathioprine for 6 months. Complete remission was defined as a value for urinary protein excretion that was less than 0.3 g per 24 hours, with normal urinary sediment, a normal serum albumin concentration, and values for serum creatinine and creatinine clearance that were no more than 15 percent above the base-line values. Partial remission was defined as a value for urinary protein excretion that was between 0.3 and 2.9 g per 24 hours, with a serum albumin concentration of at least 30 g per liter. Eighty-one percent of the 21 patients treated with mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone (group 1) had a complete remission, and 14 percent had a partial remission, as compared with 76 percent and 14 percent, respectively, of the 21 patients treated with cyclophosphamide and prednisolone followed by azathioprine and prednisolone (group 2). The improvements in the degree of proteinuria and the serum albumin and creatinine concentrations were similar in the two groups. One patient in each group discontinued treatment because of side effects. Infections were noted in 19 percent of the patients in group 1 and in 33 percent of those in group 2 (P = 0.29). Other adverse effects occurred only in group 2; they included amenorrhea (in 23 percent of the patients), hair loss (19 percent), leukopenia (10 percent), and death (10 percent). The rates of relapse were 15 percent and 11 percent, respectively. For the treatment of diffuse proliferative lupus nephritis, the combination of mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone is as effective as a regimen of cyclophosphamide and prednisolone followed by azathioprine and prednisolone but is less toxic.
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            Cyclosporine in patients with steroid-resistant membranous nephropathy: a randomized trial.

            A clinical trial of cyclosporine in patients with steroid-resistant membranous nephropathy (MGN) was conducted. Although MGN remains the most common cause of adult-onset nephrotic syndrome, its management is still controversial. Cyclosporine has been shown to be effective in cases of progressive MGN, but it has not been used in controlled studies at an early stage of the disease. We conducted a randomized trial in 51 biopsy-proven idiopathic MGN patients with nephrotic-range proteinuria comparing 26 weeks of cyclosporine treatment plus low-dose prednisone to placebo plus prednisone. All patients were followed for an average of 78 weeks, and the short- and long-term effects on renal function were assessed. Seventy-five percent of the treatment group versus 22% of the control group (P < 0.001) had a partial or complete remission of their proteinuria by 26 weeks. Relapse occurred in 43% (N = 9) of the cyclosporine remission group and 40% (N = 2) of the placebo group by week 52. The fraction of the total population in remission then remained almost unchanged and significant different between the groups until the end of the study (cyclosporine 39%, placebo 13%, P = 0.007). Renal function was unchanged and equal in the two groups over the test medication period. In the subsequent follow-up, renal insufficiency, defined as doubling of baseline creatinine, was seen in two patients in each group, but remained equal and stable in all of the other patients. This study suggests that cyclosporine is an effective therapeutic agent in the treatment of steroid-resistant cases of MGN. Although a high relapse does occur, 39% of the treated patients remained in remission and were subnephrotic for at least one-year post-treatment, with no adverse effect on filtration function.
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              Treatment of severe systemic lupus erythematosus with high-dose chemotherapy and haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase I study.

              Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who experience persistent multiorgan dysfunction, despite standard doses of intravenous cyclophosphamide, represent a subset of patients at high risk of early death. We investigated the safety and efficacy of immune suppression and autologous haemopoietic stem-cell infusion to treat such patients. From 1996, we selected patients with persistent SLE despite use of cyclophosphamide. Patients underwent dose-intense immune suppression and autologous haemopoietic stem-cell (CD34) infusion. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were analysed by flow cytometry, ELISA, and T-cell-receptor spectratyping before and after transplantation. We mobilised autologous haemopoietic stem cells with 2.0 g/m2 cyclophosphamide and 10 microg/kg granulocyte colony stimulating factor daily, enriched with CD34-positive selection, and reinfused after immunosuppression with 200 mg/kg cyclophosphamide, 1 g methylprednisolone, and 90 mg/kg equine antithymocyte globulin. Nine patients underwent stem-cell mobilisation but two were excluded before transplantation because of infection. The remaining seven received high-dose chemotherapy and stem-cell infusion. Median time to an absolute neutrophil count higher than 0.5x10(9)/L and nontransfused platelet count higher than 20x10(9)/L was 9 days (range 8-11) and 11 days (10-13), respectively. At a median follow-up of 25 months (12-40), all patients were free from signs of active lupus. Renal, cardiac, pulmonary, and serological markers, and T cell phenotype and repertoire had normalised. Patients remained free from active lupus and improved continuously after transplantation, with no immunosuppressive medication or small residual doses of prednisone. T-cell repertoire diversity and responsiveness was restored. Durability of remission remains to be established.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2003
                January 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 1
                : c7-c12
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA
                Article
                66645 Nephron Clin Pract 2003;93:c7–c12
                10.1159/000066645
                12411753
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 15, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66645
                Categories
                Minireview: Current Practice

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