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      Seroprevalence and associated risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in yaks ( Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau of China Translated title: Séroprévalence et facteurs de risque associés à l’infection par Toxoplasma gondii chez les yaks ( Bos grunniens) du plateau Qinghai–Tibet en Chine

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          Abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that is extensively prevalent globally. Studies have indicated the presence of T. gondii infection in animals in some provinces of China, but little is known about T. gondii infection in yaks ( Bos grunniens) on the Qinghai–Tibetan Plateau. In the current study, to determine the seroprevalence and associated risk factors of T. gondii, a total of 2784 serum samples were collected from 18 different sampling sites in eight counties of the Qinghai and Tibet regions of China from 2018 to 2019. Serum antibodies against T. gondii were detected in 261 yaks (9.38%) via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that seroprevalence differed significantly among different counties (ranging from 5.41% in Gangcha to 19.79% in Datong), by year in the Tibet Autonomous Region (from 2.34% in 2018 to 13.24% in 2019), and by age (from 5.59% in 0 < year ≤ 1 to 11.76% in year > 7) ( p < 0.05). Climate, geographical conditions, and age are the main factors influencing T. gondii infection in yaks in these regions. Therefore, our study provides a data reference for public health and prevention of yak toxoplasmosis.

          Translated abstract

          Toxoplasma gondii est un parasite intracellulaire largement répandu dans le monde. Des études ont indiqué la présence d’une infection par T. gondii chez les animaux dans certaines provinces de Chine, mais on connaît peu l’infection par T. gondii chez les yaks ( Bos grunniens) sur le plateau Qinghai–Tibet. Dans la présente étude, pour déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs de risque associés de T. gondii, un total de 2784 échantillons de sérum ont été prélevés sur 18 sites d’échantillonnage différents dans huit comtés des régions du Qinghai et du Tibet en Chine entre 2018 et 2019. Des anticorps sériques contre T. gondii ont été détectés par dosage immuno-enzymatique (ELISA) chez 261 yaks (9,38 %). Nous avons constaté que la séroprévalence différait considérablement entre les différents comtés (allant de 5,41 % à Gangcha à 19,79 % à Datong), d’une année à l’autre dans la région autonome du Tibet (de 2,34 % en 2018 à 13,24 % en 2019), et par âge (de 5,59 % pour les animaux de moins d’un an à 11,76 % pour ceux âgés de plus de 7 ans) ( p < 0,05). Le climat, les conditions géographiques et l’âge sont les principaux facteurs influençant l’infection à T. gondii chez les yaks de ces régions. Par conséquent, notre étude fournit des données de référence pour la santé publique et la prévention de la toxoplasmose du yak.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Toxoplasmosis: A history of clinical observations.

          It has been 100 years since Toxoplasma gondii was initially described in Tunis by Nicolle and Manceaux (1908) in the tissues of the gundi (Ctenodoactylus gundi) and in Brazil by Splendore (1908) in the tissues of a rabbit. Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, Apicomplexan parasite of warm-blooded animals that can cause several clinical syndromes including encephalitis, chorioretinitis, congenital infection and neonatal mortality. Fifteen years after the description of T. gondii by Nicolle and Manceaux a fatal case of toxoplasmosis in a child was reported by Janků. In 1939 Wolf, Cowen and Paige were the first to conclusively identify T. gondii as a cause of human disease. This review examines the clinical manifestations of infection with T. gondii and the history of the discovery of these manifestations.
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            Toxoplasma gondii: from animals to humans

            Toxoplasmosis is one of the more common parasitic zoonoses world-wide. Its causative agent, Toxoplasma gondii, is a facultatively heteroxenous, polyxenous protozoon that has developed several potential routes of transmission within and between different host species. If first contracted during pregnancy, T. gondii may be transmitted vertically by tachyzoites that are passed to the foetus via the placenta. Horizontal transmission of T. gondii may involve three life-cycle stages, i.e. ingesting infectious oocysts from the environment or ingesting tissue cysts or tachyzoites which are contained in meat or primary offal (viscera) of many different animals. Transmission may also occur via tachyzoites contained in blood products, tissue transplants, or unpasteurised milk. However, it is not known which of these routes is more important epidemiologically. In the past, the consumption of raw or undercooked meat, in particular of pigs and sheep, has been regarded as a major route of transmission to humans. However, recent studies showed that the prevalence of T. gondii in meat-producing animals decreased considerably over the past 20 years in areas with intensive farm management. For example, in several countries of the European Union prevalences of T. gondii in fattening pigs are now <1%. Considering these data it is unlikely that pork is still a major source of infection for humans in these countries. However, it is likely that the major routes of transmission are different in human populations with differences in culture and eating habits. In the Americas, recent outbreaks of acute toxoplasmosis in humans have been associated with oocyst contamination of the environment. Therefore, future epidemiological studies on T. gondii infections should consider the role of oocysts as potential sources of infection for humans, and methods to monitor these are currently being developed. This review presents recent epidemiological data on T. gondii, hypotheses on the major routes of transmission to humans in different populations, and preventive measures that may reduce the risk of contracting a primary infection during pregnancy.
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              Zoonotic protozoa: from land to sea.

              Attention to worldwide pollution of the coastal marine environment has focused primarily on toxic algal blooms and pathogenic bacteria that multiply in nutrient-rich waters. However, massive but unseen amounts of feces from humans, their pets, and their domesticated animals are discharged, dumped, or carried in runoff, bringing encysted zoonotic protozoan parasites to estuaries and coastal waters. Here, they contaminate bathing beaches, are filtered and concentrated by shellfish eaten by humans and marine mammals, and infect a wide range of marine animal hosts, resulting in morbidity and mortality to some populations. This review addresses the extent of contamination and the animals affected by three genera of important zoonotic protozoa: Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2021
                18 May 2021
                : 28
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2021/01 )
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Key Laboratory of Animal Parasitology of Ministry of Agriculture, Laboratory of Quality and Safety Risk Assessment for Animal Products on Biohazards (Shanghai) of Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai Veterinary Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences Shanghai 200241 PR China
                [2 ] Animal Science and Technology College, Jilin Agricultural University Changchun 130118 Jilin PR China
                [3 ] Veterinary Research Institute, Qinghai Academy of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Qinghai University, State Key Laboratory of Plateau Ecology and Agriculture Xining 810016 Qinghai PR China
                [4 ] Tibet Livestock Research Institute, Tibet Academy of Agriculture and Animal Science Lhasa 850009 Tibet PR China
                Author notes
                [a]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                parasite200175 10.1051/parasite/2021043
                10.1051/parasite/2021043
                8132598
                34009120
                © T. Sun et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2021

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 4, Equations: 1, References: 28, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Article

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