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      Acute Thrombocytopenia, Leucopenia, and Multiorgan Dysfunction: The First Case of SFTS Bunyavirus outside China?

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          Abstract

          We report a 57-year-old man with acute thrombocytopenia, leucopenia, and multiorgan dysfunction. Patient was from North Korea and was temporarily working in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, when he fell ill in March 2009. At the same time and unknown to us, many patients with similar clinical manifestations were admitted to hospitals in China. The Chinese cases—identified between March and July 2009—were recently reported to have been infected with a tick-born strain of bunyavirus, a new disease. The virus infection was documented in patients from central China and the region that shares the border with North Korea. The clinical manifestations, the time of disease onset, and geographical link of the patient with the region in which the disease is endemic suggest that the patient had SFTS bunyavirus infection.

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          Most cited references19

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          Guillain-Barré syndrome.

          Guillain-Barré syndrome consists of at least four subtypes of acute peripheral neuropathy. Major advances have been made in understanding the mechanisms of some of the subtypes. The histological appearance of the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) subtype resembles experimental autoimmune neuritis, which is predominantly caused by T cells directed against peptides from the myelin proteins P0, P2, and PMP22. The role of T-cell-mediated immunity in AIDP remains unclear and there is evidence for the involvement of antibodies and complement. Strong evidence now exists that axonal subtypes of Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), are caused by antibodies to gangliosides on the axolemma that target macrophages to invade the axon at the node of Ranvier. About a quarter of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome have had a recent Campylobacter jejuni infection, and axonal forms of the disease are especially common in these people. The lipo-oligosaccharide from the C jejuni bacterial wall contains ganglioside-like structures and its injection into rabbits induces a neuropathy that resembles acute motor axonal neuropathy. Antibodies to GM1, GM1b, GD1a, and GalNac-GD1a are in particular implicated in acute motor axonal neuropathy and, with the exception of GalNacGD1a, in acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy. The Fisher's syndrome subtype is especially associated with antibodies to GQ1b, and similar cross-reactivity with ganglioside structures in the wall of C jejuni has been discovered. Anti-GQ1b antibodies have been shown to damage the motor nerve terminal in vitro by a complement-mediated mechanism. Results of international randomised trials have shown equivalent efficacy of both plasma exchange and intravenous immunoglobulin, but not corticosteroids, in hastening recovery from Guillain-Barré syndrome. Further research is needed to discover treatments to prevent 20% of patients from being left with persistent and significant disability.
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            Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever

            Summary Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an often fatal viral infection described in about 30 countries, and it has the most extensive geographic distribution of the medically important tickborne viral diseases, closely approximating the known global distribution of Hyalomma spp ticks. Human beings become infected through tick bites, by crushing infected ticks, after contact with a patient with CCHF during the acute phase of infection, or by contact with blood or tissues from viraemic livestock. Clinical features commonly show a dramatic progression characterised by haemorrhage, myalgia, and fever. The levels of liver enzymes, creatinine phosphokinase, and lactate dehydrogenase are raised, and bleeding markers are prolonged. Infection of the endothelium has a major pathogenic role. Besides direct infection of the endothelium, indirect damage by viral factors or virus-mediated host-derived soluble factors that cause endothelial activations and dysfunction are thought to occur. In diagnosis, enzyme-linked immunoassay and real-time reverse transcriptase PCR are used. Early diagnosis is critical for patient therapy and prevention of potential nosocomial infections. Supportive therapy is the most essential part of case management. Recent studies suggest that ribavirin is effective against CCHF, although definitive studies are not available. Health-care workers have a serious risk of infection, particularly during care of patients with haemorrhages from the nose, mouth, gums, vagina, and injection sites. Simple barrier precautions have been reported to be effective.
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              Bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral myositis.

              Infectious myositis may be caused by a broad range of bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral agents. Infectious myositis is overall uncommon given the relative resistance of the musculature to infection. For example, inciting events, including trauma, surgery, or the presence of foreign bodies or devitalized tissue, are often present in cases of bacterial myositis. Bacterial causes are categorized by clinical presentation, anatomic location, and causative organisms into the categories of pyomyositis, psoas abscess, Staphylococcus aureus myositis, group A streptococcal necrotizing myositis, group B streptococcal myositis, clostridial gas gangrene, and nonclostridial myositis. Fungal myositis is rare and usually occurs among immunocompromised hosts. Parasitic myositis is most commonly a result of trichinosis or cystericercosis, but other protozoa or helminths may be involved. A parasitic cause of myositis is suggested by the travel history and presence of eosinophilia. Viruses may cause diffuse muscle involvement with clinical manifestations, such as benign acute myositis (most commonly due to influenza virus), pleurodynia (coxsackievirus B), acute rhabdomyolysis, or an immune-mediated polymyositis. The diagnosis of myositis is suggested by the clinical picture and radiologic imaging, and the etiologic agent is confirmed by microbiologic or serologic testing. Therapy is based on the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Case Rep Infect Dis
                Case Rep Infect Dis
                CRIM.ID
                Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2090-6625
                2090-6633
                2011
                12 October 2011
                : 2011
                : 204056
                Affiliations
                1Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain, UAE
                2Department of Medicine, P.O. Box 1006, Al Ain Hospital, Al Ain, UAE
                3Department of Pathology, Tawam Hospital, P.O. Box 15258, Al Ain, UAE
                4Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, Al Ain, UAE
                Author notes

                Academic Editors: T. Shibata, E. M. Stringer, W. I. van der Meijden, and K. Yeboah-Antwi

                Article
                10.1155/2011/204056
                3336226
                22567462
                909774e8-ec32-4471-97bd-9ef46313511b
                Copyright © 2011 Srdjan Denic et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 15 June 2011
                : 9 August 2011
                Categories
                Case Report

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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