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      Biomechanical Phenotyping of Central Arteries in Health and Disease: Advantages of and Methods for Murine Models

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          Abdominal aortic aneurysm.

          Abdominal aortic aneurysms cause 1.3% of all deaths among men aged 65-85 years in developed countries. These aneurysms are typically asymptomatic until the catastrophic event of rupture. Repair of large or symptomatic aneurysms by open surgery or endovascular repair is recommended, whereas repair of small abdominal aortic aneurysms does not provide a significant benefit. Abdominal aortic aneurysm is linked to the degradation of the elastic media of the atheromatous aorta. An inflammatory cell infiltrate, neovascularisation, and production and activation of various proteases and cytokines contribute to the development of this disorder, although the underlying mechanisms are unknown. In this Seminar, we aim to provide an updated review of the pathophysiology, current and new diagnostic procedures, assessment, and treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm to provide family practitioners with a working knowledge of this disorder.
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            Determination of layer-specific mechanical properties of human coronary arteries with nonatherosclerotic intimal thickening and related constitutive modeling.

            At autopsy, 13 nonstenotic human left anterior descending coronary arteries [71.5 +/- 7.3 (mean +/- SD) yr old] were harvested, and related anamnesis was documented. Preconditioned prepared strips (n = 78) of segments from the midregion of the left anterior descending coronary artery from the individual layers in axial and circumferential directions were subjected to cyclic quasi-static uniaxial tension tests, and ultimate tensile stresses and stretches were documented. The ratio of outer diameter to total wall thickness was 0.189 +/- 0.014; ratios of adventitia, media, and intima thickness to total wall thickness were 0.4 +/- 0.03, 0.36 +/- 0.03, and 0.27 +/- 0.02, respectively; axial in situ stretch of 1.044 +/- 0.06 decreased with age. Stress-stretch responses for the individual tissues showed pronounced mechanical heterogeneity. The intima is the stiffest layer over the whole deformation domain, whereas the media in the longitudinal direction is the softest. All specimens exhibited small hysteresis and anisotropic and strong nonlinear behavior in both loading directions. The media and intima showed similar ultimate tensile stresses, which are on average three times smaller than ultimate tensile stresses in the adventitia (1,430 +/- 604 kPa circumferential and 1,300 +/- 692 kPa longitudinal). The ultimate tensile stretches are similar for all tissue layers. A recently proposed constitutive model was extended and used to represent the deformation behavior for each tissue type over the entire loading range. The study showed the need to model nonstenotic human coronary arteries with nonatherosclerotic intimal thickening as a composite structure composed of three solid mechanically relevant layers with different mechanical properties. The intima showed significant thickness, load-bearing capacity, and mechanical strength compared with the media and adventitia.
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              Cardiovascular Solid Mechanics

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annals of Biomedical Engineering
                Ann Biomed Eng
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0090-6964
                1573-9686
                July 2013
                April 3 2013
                July 2013
                : 41
                : 7
                : 1311-1330
                Article
                10.1007/s10439-013-0799-1
                © 2013

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