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      Wide Distribution of Laminin-5 γ2 Chain in Basement Membranes of Various Human Tissues

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          Laminin 5 (LN5), a heterotrimer of laminin α3, β3, and γ2 chains, is a laminin isoform which strongly promotes adhesion, migration, and scattering of cells through binding to integrins α3β1, α6β1 and α6β4. To get an insight into the physiological functions of LN5, we prepared a mouse monoclonal antibody to human laminin γ2 chain and used it for immunohistochemical analysis of laminin γ2 chain in normal human tissues. The basement membranes of various epithelial tissues, such as the skin, lung, small intestine, stomach, kidney and prostate, were immunostained with the anti-laminin γ2 chain monoclonal antibody. In addition, the basement membrane of the surface germinal epithelium in the ovary was also positive for laminin γ2 chain. These results suggest general roles of LN5 in the anchorage of various types of epithelial cells to the underlying basement membrane and in the expression of their cellular functions. Moreover, deposition of laminin γ2 chain around small arteries and veins was observed in the thymus and spleen. This lymphatic organ-specific expression of vascular LN5 might provide a novel function of LN5 in immune responses.

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          The Laminin α Chains: Expression, Developmental Transitions, and Chromosomal Locations of α1-5, Identification of Heterotrimeric Laminins 8–11, and Cloning of a Novel α3 Isoform

          Laminin trimers composed of α, β, and γ chains are major components of basal laminae (BLs) throughout the body. To date, three α chains (α1–3) have been shown to assemble into at least seven heterotrimers (called laminins 1–7). Genes encoding two additional α chains (α4 and α5) have been cloned, but little is known about their expression, and their protein products have not been identified. Here we generated antisera to recombinant α4 and α5 and used them to identify authentic proteins in tissue extracts. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting showed that α4 and α5 assemble into four novel laminin heterotrimers (laminins 8–11: α4β1γ1, α4β2γ1, α5β1γ1, and α5β2γ1, respectively). Using a panel of nucleotide and antibody probes, we surveyed the expression of α1-5 in murine tissues. All five chains were expressed in both embryos and adults, but each was distributed in a distinct pattern at both RNA and protein levels. Overall, α4 and α5 exhibited the broadest patterns of expression, while expression of α1 was the most restricted. Immunohistochemical analysis of kidney, lung, and heart showed that the α chains were confined to extracellular matrix and, with few exceptions, to BLs. All developing and adult BLs examined contained at least one α chain, all α chains were present in multiple BLs, and some BLs contained two or three α chains. Detailed analysis of developing kidney revealed that some individual BLs, including those of the tubule and glomerulus, changed in laminin chain composition as they matured, expressing up to three different α chains and two different β chains in an elaborate and dynamic progression. Interspecific backcross mapping of the five α chain genes revealed that they are distributed on four mouse chromosomes. Finally, we identified a novel full-length α3 isoform encoded by the Lama3 gene, which was previously believed to encode only truncated chains. Together, these results reveal remarkable diversity in BL composition and complexity in BL development.
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            A new nomenclature for the laminins.

            The authors have adopted a new nomenclature for the laminins. They are numbered with arabic numerals in the order discovered. The previous A, B1 and B2 chains, and their isoforms, are alpha, beta and gamma, respectively, followed by an arabic numeral to identify the isoform. For example, the first laminin identified from the Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm tumor is laminin-1 with the chain composition alpha 1 beta 1 gamma 1. The genes for these chains are LAMA1, LAMB1 and LAMC1, respectively.
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              Induction of Cell Migration by Matrix Metalloprotease-2 Cleavage of Laminin-5

               G. Giannelli (1997)

                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                July 1998
                17 November 2004
                : 50
                : Suppl 2
                : 7-14
                a Division of Cell Biology, Kihara Institute for Biological Research, Yokohama CityUniversity, and Departments of b Pathology and c Obstetrics and Gynecology, Yokohama City University School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan
                53118 Horm Res 1998;50(suppl 2):7–14
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Pages: 8


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