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A Contemporary Treatment Approach to Both Diabetes and Depression by Cordyceps sinensis, Rich in Vanadium

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      Abstract

      Diabetes mellitus is accompanied by hormonal and neurochemical changes that can be associated with anxiety and depression. Both diabetes and depression negatively interact, in that depression leads to poor metabolic control and hyperglycemia exacerbates depression. We hypothesize one novel vanadium complex of vanadium-enriched Cordyceps sinensis (VECS), which is beneficial in preventing depression in diabetes, and influences the long-term course of glycemic control. Vanadium compounds have the ability to imitate the action of insulin, and this mimicry may have further favorable effects on the level of treatment satisfaction and mood. C. sinensis has an antidepressant-like activity, and attenuates the diabetes-induced increase in blood glucose concentrations. We suggest that the VECS may be a potential strategy for contemporary treatment of depression and diabetes through the co-effect of C. sinensis and vanadium. The validity of the hypothesis can most simply be tested by examining blood glucose levels, and swimming and climbing behavior in streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats.

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      Most cited references 44

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      The mechanisms of alloxan- and streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

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      Alloxan and streptozotocin are toxic glucose analogues that preferentially accumulate in pancreatic beta cells via the GLUT2 glucose transporter. In the presence of intracellular thiols, especially glutathione, alloxan generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a cyclic redox reaction with its reduction product, dialuric acid. Autoxidation of dialuric acid generates superoxide radicals, hydrogen peroxide and, in a final iron-catalysed reaction step, hydroxyl radicals. These hydroxyl radicals are ultimately responsible for the death of the beta cells, which have a particularly low antioxidative defence capacity, and the ensuing state of insulin-dependent 'alloxan diabetes'. As a thiol reagent, alloxan also selectively inhibits glucose-induced insulin secretion through its ability to inhibit the beta cell glucose sensor glucokinase. Following its uptake into the beta cells, streptozotocin is split into its glucose and methylnitrosourea moiety. Owing to its alkylating properties, the latter modifies biological macromolecules, fragments DNA and destroys the beta cells, causing a state of insulin-dependent diabetes. The targeting of mitochondrial DNA, thereby impairing the signalling function of beta cell mitochondrial metabolism, also explains how streptozotocin is able to inhibit glucose-induced insulin secretion.
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        The Pharmacological Potential of Mushrooms

        This review describes pharmacologically active compounds from mushrooms. Compounds and complex substances with antimicrobial, antiviral, antitumor, antiallergic, immunomodulating, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, hypoglycemic, hepatoprotective and central activities are covered, focusing on the review of recent literature. The production of mushrooms or mushroom compounds is discussed briefly.
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          Prevalence of depression in adults with diabetes. An epidemiological evaluation.

          To determine the prevalence of depression in adult diabetic populations through a comprehensive literature review and to critically evaluate the methods and findings of such studies from an epidemiological perspective. A systematic review of the scientific literature revealed a total of 20 studies, 14 of which had been conducted since 1988. Nine of the studies were controlled investigations, whereas the remaining 11 studies did not contain comparison groups. The studies included both treatment and community samples. The range of the prevalence of current depression obtained from structured diagnostic interviews in diabetic samples was 8.5-27.3% (mean = 14.0%) in controlled studies and 11.0-19.9% (mean = 15.4%) in uncontrolled studies. These rates are at least three times the prevalence of major depressive disorder found in the general adult population of the U.S. Investigations using depression symptom scales corroborated these findings, as the range of clinically significant depression symptomatology in diabetic samples was 21.8-60.0% (mean = 32.4%) in controlled studies and 10.0-28.0% (mean = 19.6%) in uncontrolled studies. An increased prevalence of depression in diabetes relative to the general population is highly suggested by the literature, but biases and methodological problems commonly encountered in prevalence studies may interfere with the strength of this conclusion. An increased prevalence of depression in diabetes relative to other somatic illnesses remains unproven. The pervasive impact of depression on quality of life and its potential negative effect on diabetes management warrant recognition and treatment of the affective disorder in diabetic individuals.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Key Laboratory of Mental Health, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, People's Republic of China, 2School of Pharmacy, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Jinan 250355, People’s Republic of China and 3Molecular Biology Laboratory of Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, People's Republic of China
            Author notes
            For reprints and all correspondence: Yong-Mei Liu, Molecular Biology Laboratory of Guang’anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China. Tel: +86-10-88001437; Fax: +86-10-88001437; E-mail: yongmei_l@ 123456126.com
            Journal
            Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
            ecam
            ecam
            Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : eCAM
            Oxford University Press
            1741-427X
            1741-4288
            September 2010
            30 November 2009
            : 7
            : 3
            : 387-389
            2887337
            19948751
            10.1093/ecam/nep201
            nep201
            © The Author 2009. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org
            Categories
            Hypothesis

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