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      Microencapsulation technology by nature: Cell derived extracellular vesicles with therapeutic potential

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          Abstract

          Cell derived extracellular vesicles are submicron structures surrounded by phospholipid bilayer and released by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The sizes of these vesicles roughly fall into the size ranges of microbes, and they represent efficient delivery platforms targeting complex molecular information to professional antigen presenting cells. Critical roles of these naturally formulated units of information have been described in many physiological and pathological processes. Extracellular vesicles are not only potential biomarkers and possible pathogenic factors in numerous diseases, but they are also considered as emerging therapeutic targets and therapeutic vehicles. Strikingly, current drug delivery systems, designed to convey therapeutic proteins and peptides (such as liposomes), show many similarities to extracellular vesicles. Here we review some aspects of therapeutic implementation of natural, cell-derived extracellular vesicles in human diseases. Exploration of molecular and functional details of extracellular vesicle release and action may provide important lessons for the design of future drug delivery systems.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Exosomes: immune properties and potential clinical implementations.

          To communicate, cells are known to release in their environment proteins which bind to receptors on surrounding cells. But cells also secrete more complex structures, called membrane vesicles, composed of a lipid bilayer with inserted transmembrane proteins, enclosing an internal content of hydrophilic components. Exosomes represent a specific subclass of such secreted membrane vesicles, which, despite having been described more than 20 years ago by two groups studying reticulocyte maturation, have only recently received attention from the scientific community. This renewed interest originated first from the description of exosome secretion by antigen-presenting cells, suggesting a potential role in immune responses, and very recently by the identification of the presence of RNA (both messenger and microRNA) in exosomes, suggesting a potential transfer of genetic information between cells. In this review, we will describe the conclusions of 20 years of studies on the immune properties of exosomes and the most recent advances on their roles and potential uses as markers or as therapeutic tools during pathologies, especially in cancer.
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            Rapid secretion of interleukin-1beta by microvesicle shedding.

            The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) is a secreted protein that lacks a signal peptide and does not follow currently known pathways of secretion. Its efficient release from activated immune cells requires a secondary stimulus such as extracellular ATP acting on P2X(7) receptors. We show that human THP-1 monocytes shed microvesicles from their plasma membrane within 2-5 s of activation of P2X(7) receptors. Two minutes after such stimulation, the released microvesicles contained bioactive IL-1beta, which only later appeared in the vesicle-free supernatant. We conclude that microvesicle shedding is a major secretory pathway for rapid IL-1beta release from activated monocytes and may represent a more general mechanism for secretion of similar leaderless secretory proteins.
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              Special delivery: vesicle trafficking in prokaryotes.

              Although the observation that Gram-negative bacteria produce outer membrane vesicles (MVs) was made over 40 years ago, their biological roles have become a focus of study only within the past 10 years. Recent progress in this area has revealed that bacterial MVs are utilized for several processes including delivery of toxins to eukaryotic cells, protein and DNA transfer between bacterial cells, and trafficking of cell-cell signals. Some of these roles appear to be generalized among the Gram-negative bacteria while others are restricted to specific bacterial species/strains. Here we review the known roles of MVs, propose other roles for MVs in mediating interspecies and inter-kingdom communication, and discuss the mechanism of MV formation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 June 2013
                : 3
                : 2
                : 91-96
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary
                [ 2 ] Department of Genetics, Cell- and Immunobiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
                [ 3 ] Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Experimental Medicine, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szigony u. 43, 1083, Budapest, Hungary
                Author notes
                [* ] +36 1 210 9400, +36 1 210 9423, kittel.agnes@ 123456koki.mta.hu
                Article
                1
                10.1556/EuJMI.3.2013.2.1
                3832093
                24265924
                Categories
                Review Articles

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