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      Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites among Immunocompromised Patients, Children, and Adults in Sana'a, Yemen

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          Abstract

          Intestinal parasite infection (IPI) is still a very important public health issue. The severity of the parasitic disease has been reported as a high infection in immunocompromised patients and children. Hence, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasites among immunocompromised patients and children with various gastrointestinal system complications in Sana'a city, Yemen, with different variables, including genus and age, and explore the risk factors associated with parasitic intestinal infections. The study socioeconomic data and certain behavioral and environmental risk factors and stool samples were collected from immunocompromised adult and children's patients, including children (one to eight years old), pregnant women, diabetes mellitus patients, cancer patients, HIV patients, and older adults. Out of 436 fecal samples, the overall prevalence rate of IPIs among immunocompromised patients and children in Sana'a was 51.8%. In contrast, the rate of infection in children (26.1%) was higher than that in old patients (25.7%) and in females (38.5%) and higher than that in males (13.3%). The protozoa (44.5%) have been shown more than intestinal helminths (7.3%) in samples, and the most common intestinal protozoan was Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica (13.8% and 12.8%), respectively. The most common intestinal helminthiasis was Hymenolepis nana with 1.8%. Concluding that the rate of infection was high for several reasons, including lack of commitment to hygiene as not handwashing after using the toilet (88.9%), eating uncovered food (56.3%), poor sanitation as lack of water sources (59.5%), reduced health education, and presence of other family members infected by parasites (61.3%). Interventions are required to reduce intestinal parasites, including health education on personal hygiene for patients, increasing awareness, and improving the environment and healthcare system.

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          Prevalence and Factors Associated with Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Children in an Urban Slum of Karachi

          Background Intestinal parasitic infections are endemic worldwide and have been described as constituting the greatest single worldwide cause of illness and disease. Poverty, illiteracy, poor hygiene, lack of access to potable water and hot and humid tropical climate are the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections. The study aimed to estimate prevalence and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infections among 1 to 5 years old children residing in an urban slum of Karachi Pakistan. Methods and Principal Findings A cross sectional survey was conducted from February to June 2006 in Ghosia Colony Gulshan Town Karachi, Pakistan. A simple random sample of 350 children aged 1–5 years was collected. The study used structured pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric tools and stool tests to obtain epidemiological and disease data. Data were analyzed using appropriate descriptive, univariate and multivariable logistic regression methods. The mean age of participants was 2.8 years and 53% were male. The proportions of wasted, stunted and underweight children were 10.4%, 58.9% and 32.7% respectively. The prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections was estimated to be 52.8% (95% CI: 46.1; 59.4). Giardia lamblia was the most common parasite followed by Ascaris lumbricoides, Blastocystis hominis and Hymenolepis nana. About 43% children were infected with single parasite and 10% with multiple parasites. Age {Adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1; 1.9}, living in rented households (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.9) and history of excessive crying (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.0; 3.4) were significantly associated with intestinal parasitic infections. Conclusions Intestinal parasites are highly prevalent in this setting and poverty was implicated as an important risk factor for infection. Effective poverty reduction programmes and promotion of deworming could reduce intestinal parasite carriage. There is a need for mass scale campaigns to create awareness about health and hygiene.
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            Intestinal parasites prevalence and related factors in school children, a western city sample-Turkey

            Background Intestinal parasitic infections are amongst the most common infections worldwide. Epidemiological research carried out in different countries has shown that the social and economical situation of the individuals is an important cause in the prevalence of intestinal parasites. Previous studies in Turkey revealed a high prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. The objectives of the current study were to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Aydin among 7–14 years old school children and to identify associated socio-demographic and environmental factors, behavioral habits and also related complaints. Methods Multistage sampling was used in the selection of the study sample. A questionnaire, cellulose adhesive and a stool specimen examination were done. Results A total of 456 stool specimens were collected. 145 students (31.8%) were infected with one or more intestinal parasites. 29 (6.4%) of the students were infected more than one parasite, 26 (5.7%) with two parasites and 3 (0.7%) with three parasites. The three most common were E. vermicularis, G. intestinalis and E. coli. Intestinal parasite prevalence was higher in rural area, in children with less than primary school educated mother, in children who use hands for washing anal area after defecation, and in children who use toilet paper sometimes or never. The relation between child health and mother education is well known. Children were traditionally taught to wash anal area by hand. Toiler paper usage was not common and might be due to low income or just a behavioral habit also. Most of the complaints of the study population were not significantly related with the intestinal parasitic infection. Conclusions Intestinal parasitic infection is an important public health problem in Aydin, Turkey. Rural residence, mother education less than primary school, sometimes or never usage of toilet paper, and washing anal area by hands after defecation were the significant associations. Interventions including health education on personal hygiene to the students and to the parents, especially to mothers are required. The ratio of uneducated women should be declined with specific programs. A multisectoral approach is needed.
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              Epidemiology and clinical features of Cryptosporidium infection in immunocompromised patients.

              Cryptosporidium spp. are a major cause of diarrheal disease in both immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals. They also cause waterborne disease in both the United States and United Kingdom. Studies on the mechanisms of immunity to cryptosporidiosis indicate the importance of the T-cell response. The spectrum and severity of disease in immunocompromised individuals with cryptosporidiosis reflect this importance since the most severe disease is seen in individuals with defects in the T-cell response. The most commonly studied group is that of patients with AIDS. These patients suffer from more severe and prolonged gastrointestinal disease that can be fatal; in addition, body systems other than the gastrointestinal tract may be affected. The widespread use of antiretroviral therapy does appear to be having a beneficial effect on recovery from cryptosporidiosis and on the frequency of infection in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients. Other diseases that are associated with increased risk of severe cryptosporidiosis, such as primary immunodeficiencies, most notably severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, are also predominantly associated with T-cell defects. Of the remaining groups, children with acute leukemia seem to be most at risk from cryptosporidiosis. There is less evidence of severe complications in patients with other malignant diseases or in those receiving immunosuppressive chemotherapy.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                J Trop Med
                J Trop Med
                jtm
                Journal of Tropical Medicine
                Hindawi
                1687-9686
                1687-9694
                2022
                8 June 2022
                : 2022
                : 5976640
                Affiliations
                1School of Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China
                2School of Medical Science and Laboratory Medicine, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China
                3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Sana'a University, Sanaa, Yemen
                4School of Medicine, Nankai University, Nankai, China
                5Department of Medical Laboratory, Sana'a University, Sanaa, Yemen
                6School of Management, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu, China
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Pedro P. Chieffi

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4538-1444
                Article
                10.1155/2022/5976640
                9200594
                35719317
                90b3ebe8-526f-452a-b1da-4a8ebaf8f92e
                Copyright © 2022 Asma Al-Yousofi et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 21 March 2022
                : 24 May 2022
                Categories
                Research Article

                Infectious disease & Microbiology
                Infectious disease & Microbiology

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