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      Relationship between Aflibercept Efficacy and Genetic Variants of Genes Associated with Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: The BIOIMAGE Trial

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          Purpose: To identify the genetic variants of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway genes and other genes associated with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) as possible predictive biomarkers of a favorable treatment response to aflibercept. Design: A 52-week (with extension phase: 104-week), prospective, open-label, single-arm, multicenter, phase IV trial was conducted in Spain. Participants: Patients with nAMD were enrolled. Methods: Aflibercept was administered every 8 weeks until week 48 (after 1-monthly loading doses over 3 months). After week 48, the interval between visits for aflibercept administration was extended by 2 weeks per visit to a maximum of 12 weeks if no evidence of disease activity was observed. A total of 338 SNPs in 90 genes associated with nAMD were analyzed. Main Outcome Measures: Efficacy was evaluated mainly with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and adverse events (AEs) were reported. Treatment efficacy was defined as an increase in BCVA ≥15 letters versus the baseline visit. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to associate single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and treatment efficacy. Results: 194 nonconsecutive patients were enrolled, 170 completed the 52-week follow-up, and of the 85 patients who started the extension phase, 77 completed this phase. Mean BCVA increased from baseline to weeks 52 and 104 by 9 and 10 letters ( p = 0.0001 for both), respectively. The percentages of patients gaining ≥15 letters in weeks 52 and 104 were 33 and 31%, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression showed significant associations of 6 SNPs (in 6 genes) with treatment efficacy: rs12366035 ( VEGFB; TT; odds ratio [OR] 217), rs25681 ( C5; AA/AG; OR 19.7/8.3), rs17793056 ( CX3CR1; CT/CC; OR 8.1/6.2), rs1800775 ( CETP; CC; OR 6.6), rs2069845 ( IL6; GG/AA; OR 5.6/3.3), and rs13900 ( CCL2; CT; OR 4.0). One percent of the patients reported arteriothrombolic events related to aflibercept (cerebrovascular accident) according to the Antiplatelet Trialist Collaboration, and 2% reported serious ocular (retinal pigment epithelial tear, retinal tear, and endophthalmitis) and systemic (cardiac failure, hypersensitivity, and transient ischemic attack) AEs related to aflibercept. Conclusions: Results suggest strong pharmacogenetic associations between one genetic variant of VEGFB (TT, rs12366035) and C5 (AA, rs12366035) genes and the BCVA response after 52-week aflibercept treatment in patients with nAMD. Likewise, the results support the efficacy of aflibercept observed in phase III studies and a good safety profile.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Collaborative overview of randomised trials of antiplatelet therapy Prevention of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke by prolonged antiplatelet therapy in various categories of patients

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            Intravitreal aflibercept injection for neovascular age-related macular degeneration: ninety-six-week results of the VIEW studies.

            To determine efficacy and safety of intravitreal aflibercept in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) during a second year of variable dosing after a first-year fixed-dosing period. Two randomized, double-masked, active-controlled, phase 3 trials. Two thousand four hundred fifty-seven patients with neovascular AMD. From baseline to week 52, patients received 0.5 mg intravitreal ranibizumab every 4 weeks (Rq4), 2 mg aflibercept every 4 weeks (2q4), 0.5 mg aflibercept every 4 weeks (0.5q4), or 2 mg aflibercept every 8 weeks (2q8) after 3 monthly injections. During weeks 52 through 96, patients received their original dosing assignment using an as-needed regimen with defined retreatment criteria and mandatory dosing at least every 12 weeks. Proportion of eyes at week 96 that maintained best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA; lost <15 letters from baseline); change from baseline in BCVA. Proportions of eyes maintaining BCVA across treatments were 94.4% to 96.1% at week 52 and 91.5% to 92.4% at week 96. Mean BCVA gains were 8.3 to 9.3 letters at week 52 and 6.6 to 7.9 letters at week 96. Proportions of eyes without retinal fluid decreased from week 52 (60.3% to 72.4%) to week 96 (44.6% to 54.4%), and more 2q4 eyes were without fluid at weeks 52 and 96 than Rq4 eyes (difference of 10.4% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 4.9-15.9] and 9.0% [95% CI, 3.0-15.1]). Patients received on average 16.5, 16.0, 16.2, and 11.2 injections over 96 weeks and 4.7, 4.1, 4.6, and 4.2 injections during weeks 52 through 96 in the Rq4, 2q4, 0.5q4, and 2q8 groups, respectively. The number of injections during weeks 52 through 96 was lower in the 2q4 and 2q8 groups versus the Rq4 group (differences of -0.64 [95% CI, -0.89 to -0.40] and -0.55 [95% CI, -0.79 to -0.30]; P < 0.0001, post hoc analysis). Incidences of Antiplatelet Trialists' Collaboration-defined arterial thromboembolic events were similar across groups (2.4% to 3.8%) from baseline to week 96. All aflibercept and ranibizumab groups were equally effective in improving BCVA and preventing BCVA loss at 96 weeks. The 2q8 aflibercept group was similar to ranibizumab in visual acuity outcomes during 96 weeks, but with an average of 5 fewer injections. Small losses at 96 weeks in the visual and anatomic gains seen at 52 weeks in all arms were in the range of losses commonly observed with variable dosing. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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              Intravitreal aflibercept (VEGF trap-eye) in wet age-related macular degeneration.

              Two similarly designed, phase-3 studies (VEGF Trap-Eye: Investigation of Efficacy and Safety in Wet AMD [VIEW 1, VIEW 2]) of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) compared monthly and every-2-month dosing of intravitreal aflibercept injection (VEGF Trap-Eye; Regeneron, Tarrytown, NY, and Bayer HealthCare, Berlin, Germany) with monthly ranibizumab. Double-masked, multicenter, parallel-group, active-controlled, randomized trials. Patients (n = 2419) with active, subfoveal, choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions (or juxtafoveal lesions with leakage affecting the fovea) secondary to AMD. Patients were randomized to intravitreal aflibercept 0.5 mg monthly (0.5q4), 2 mg monthly (2q4), 2 mg every 2 months after 3 initial monthly doses (2q8), or ranibizumab 0.5 mg monthly (Rq4). The primary end point was noninferiority (margin of 10%) of the aflibercept regimens to ranibizumab in the proportion of patients maintaining vision at week 52 (losing <15 letters on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study [ETDRS] chart). Other key end points included change in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and anatomic measures. All aflibercept groups were noninferior and clinically equivalent to monthly ranibizumab for the primary end point (the 2q4, 0.5q4, and 2q8 regimens were 95.1%, 95.9%, and 95.1%, respectively, for VIEW 1, and 95.6%, 96.3%, and 95.6%, respectively, for VIEW 2, whereas monthly ranibizumab was 94.4% in both studies). In a prespecified integrated analysis of the 2 studies, all aflibercept regimens were within 0.5 letters of the reference ranibizumab for mean change in BCVA; all aflibercept regimens also produced similar improvements in anatomic measures. Ocular and systemic adverse events were similar across treatment groups. Intravitreal aflibercept dosed monthly or every 2 months after 3 initial monthly doses produced similar efficacy and safety outcomes as monthly ranibizumab. These studies demonstrate that aflibercept is an effective treatment for AMD, with the every-2-month regimen offering the potential to reduce the risk from monthly intravitreal injections and the burden of monthly monitoring. Proprietary or commercial disclosure may be found after the references. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                December 2020
                26 May 2020
                : 243
                : 6
                : 461-470
                aMedical Retina Department, Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular, Fundació de Recerca de l’Institut de Microcirurgia Ocular, Barcelona, Spain
                bGenetics Department, Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular, Fundació de Recerca de l’Institut de Microcirurgia Ocular, Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                *Rafael Navarro, Medical Retina Department, Instituto de Microcirugía Ocular, Josep Maria Llado No. 3, ES–08035 Barcelona (Spain), navarro@imo.es
                508902 Ophthalmologica 2020;243:461–470
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 10
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