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      Human leukocyte Antigen-DM polymorphisms in autoimmune diseases

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          Abstract

          Classical MHC class II (MHCII) proteins present peptides for CD4 + T-cell surveillance and are by far the most prominent risk factor for a number of autoimmune disorders. To date, many studies have shown that this link between particular MHCII alleles and disease depends on the MHCII's particular ability to bind and present certain peptides in specific physiological contexts. However, less attention has been paid to the non-classical MHCII molecule human leucocyte antigen-DM, which catalyses peptide exchange on classical MHCII proteins acting as a peptide editor. DM function impacts the presentation of both antigenic peptides in the periphery and key self-peptides during T-cell development in the thymus. In this way, DM activity directly influences the response to pathogens, as well as mechanisms of self-tolerance acquisition. While decreased DM editing of particular MHCII proteins has been proposed to be related to autoimmune disorders, no experimental evidence for different DM catalytic properties had been reported until recently. Biochemical and structural investigations, together with new animal models of loss of DM activity, have provided an attractive foundation for identifying different catalytic efficiencies for DM allotypes. Here, we revisit the current knowledge of DM function and discuss how DM function may impart autoimmunity at the organism level.

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          The IPD and IMGT/HLA database: allele variant databases

          The Immuno Polymorphism Database (IPD) was developed to provide a centralized system for the study of polymorphism in genes of the immune system. Through the IPD project we have established a central platform for the curation and publication of locus-specific databases involved either directly or related to the function of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in a number of different species. We have collaborated with specialist groups or nomenclature committees that curate the individual sections before they are submitted to IPD for online publication. IPD consists of five core databases, with the IMGT/HLA Database as the primary database. Through the work of the various nomenclature committees, the HLA Informatics Group and in collaboration with the European Bioinformatics Institute we are able to provide public access to this data through the website http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ipd/. The IPD project continues to develop with new tools being added to address scientific developments, such as Next Generation Sequencing, and to address user feedback and requests. Regular updates to the website ensure that new and confirmatory sequences are dispersed to the immunogenetics community, and the wider research and clinical communities.
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            Positive and negative selection of the T cell repertoire: what thymocytes see (and don't see).

            The fate of developing T cells is specified by the interaction of their antigen receptors with self-peptide-MHC complexes that are displayed by thymic antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Various subsets of thymic APCs are strategically positioned in particular thymic microenvironments and they coordinate the selection of a functional and self-tolerant T cell repertoire. In this Review, we discuss the different strategies that these APCs use to sample and process self antigens and to thereby generate partly unique, 'idiosyncratic' peptide-MHC ligandomes. We discuss how the particular composition of the peptide-MHC ligandomes that are presented by specific APC subsets not only shapes the T cell repertoire in the thymus but may also indelibly imprint the behaviour of mature T cells in the periphery.
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              Five amino acids in three HLA proteins explain most of the association between MHC and seropositive rheumatoid arthritis

              The genetic association of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) to rheumatoid arthritis risk has commonly been attributed to HLA-DRB1 alleles. Yet controversy persists about the causal variants in HLA-DRB1 and the presence of independent effects elsewhere in the MHC. Using existing genome-wide SNP data in 5,018 seropositive cases and 14,974 controls, we imputed and tested classical alleles and amino acid polymorphisms for HLA-A, B, C, DPA1, DPB1, DQA1, DQB1, and DRB1 along with 3,117 SNPs across the MHC. Conditional and haplotype analyses reveal that three amino acid positions (11, 71 and 74) in HLA-DRβ1, and single amino acid polymorphisms in HLA-B (position 9) and HLA-DPβ1 (position 9), all located in the peptide-binding grooves, almost completely explain the MHC association to disease risk. This study illustrates how imputation of functional variation from large reference panels can help fine-map association signals in the MHC.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Open Biol
                Open Biol
                RSOB
                royopenbio
                Open Biology
                The Royal Society
                2046-2441
                August 2016
                17 August 2016
                17 August 2016
                : 6
                : 8
                Affiliations
                Protein Biochemistry Group, Institute for Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Biology, Chemistry and Pharmacy, Freie Universität Berlin , Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                Article
                rsob160165
                10.1098/rsob.160165
                5008016
                27534821
                © 2016 The Authors.

                Published by the Royal Society under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/, which permits unrestricted use, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001659;
                Award ID: Collaborative Research Centers SFB854 and SFB958
                Categories
                1001
                199
                33
                15
                Review
                Review Article
                Custom metadata
                August 2016

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