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      Epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi Infection in Humans

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          A review was conducted to examine published works that focus on the complex epidemiology of Enterocytozoon bieneusi infection in humans. Studies on the prevalence of these emerging microsporidian pathogens in humans, in developed and developing countries, the different clinical spectra of E. bieneusi intestinal infection in children, in different settings, and the risk factors associated with E. bieneusi infection have been reviewed. This paper also analyses the impact of the recent application of PCR-based molecular methods for species-specific identification and genotype differentiation has had in increasing the knowledge of the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in humans. The advances in the epidemiology of E. bieneusi, in the last two decades, emphasize the importance of epidemiological control and prevention of E. bieneusi infections, from both the veterinary and human medical perspectives.

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          Microsporidiosis: Enterocytozoon bieneusi in domesticated and wild animals.

          Microsporidia are a ubiquitous group of obligate intracellular parasites that infect all major animal groups. Enterocytozoon bieneusi is the most commonly identified Microsporidia in humans and has also been reported worldwide in animals with importance in veterinary medicine (e.g., cats, dogs, horses, cattle and pigs). The identification of E. bieneusi in animals has raised the question of the importance of animal reservoirs in the epidemiology of this pathogen, and the implications of the infection with this pathogen in infected animals. Considerable genetic diversity within E. bieneusi has been found with over 90 genotypes identified based on the ITS nucleotide sequence of E. bieneusi spores recovered from the feces of infected humans and animals. Both host-adapted E. bieneusi genotypes with narrow host ranges and potentially zoonotic genotypes with wide host specificity have been identified. The information presented in this review should be useful in understanding the taxonomy, epidemiology, zoonotic potential, and importance in public health of E. bieneusi. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.
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            Ribosomal RNA sequence suggests microsporidia are extremely ancient eukaryotes.

            The microsporidia are a group of unusual, obligately parasitic protists that infect a great variety of other eukaryotes, including vertebrates, arthropods, molluscs, annelids, nematodes, cnidaria and even various ciliates, myxosporidia and gregarines. They possess a number of unusual cytological and molecular characteristics. Their nuclear division is considered to be primitive, they have no mitochondria, their ribosomes and ribosomal RNAs are reported to be of prokaryotic size and their large ribosomal subunit contains no 5.8S rRNA. The uniqueness of the microsporidia may reflect their phylogenetic position, because comparative sequence analysis shows that the small subunit rRNA of the microsporidium Vairimorpha necatrix is more unlike those of other eukaryotes than any known eukaryote 18S rRNA sequence. We conclude that the lineage leading to microsporidia branched very early from that leading to other eukaryotes.
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              Identification and genotyping of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in China.

              In this study, the prevalence of Enterocytozoon bieneusi in China was investigated. Twelve genotypes of E. bieneusi were identified, of which 10 were novel genotypes. Further, 41.6% of the genotypes were found in both humans and animals. This is the first report of E. bieneusi in China.

                Author and article information

                J Parasitol Res
                J Parasitol Res
                Journal of Parasitology Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                3 October 2012
                : 2012
                1Grupo de Protozoários Oportunistas/VIH e Outros Protozoários, Unidade de Parasitologia Médica, CMDT, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 1349-008 Lisboa, Portugal
                2Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: C. Genchi

                Copyright © 2012 Olga Matos et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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