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      Development of intramammary delivery systems containing lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis: impact of solubility improvement on safety, efficacy, and milk distribution in dairy cattle

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          Mastitis is a major disease of dairy cattle. Given the recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as a cause of bovine mastitis, new intramammary (IMA) treatments are urgently required. Lasalocid, a member of the polyether ionophore class of antimicrobial agents, has not been previously administered to cows by the IMA route and has favorable characteristics for development as a mastitis treatment. This study aimed to develop an IMA drug delivery system (IMDS) of lasalocid for the treatment of bovine mastitis.


          Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined applying the procedures recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Solid dispersions (SDs) of lasalocid were prepared and characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. IMDSs containing lasalocid of micronized, nano-sized, or as SD form were tested for their IMA safety in cows. Therapeutic efficacy of lasalocid IMDSs was tested in a bovine model involving experimental IMA challenge with the mastitis pathogen Streptococcus uberis.


          Lasalocid demonstrated antimicrobial activity against the major Gram-positive mastitis pathogens including S. aureus (MIC range 0.5–8 μg/mL). The solubility test confirmed limited, ion-strength-dependent water solubility of lasalocid. A kinetic solubility study showed that SDs effectively enhanced water solubility of lasalocid (21–35-fold). Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-lasalocid SD caused minimum mammary irritation in treated cows and exhibited faster distribution in milk than either nano or microsized lasalocid. IMDSs with PVP-lasalocid SD provided effective treatment with a higher mastitis clinical and microbiological cure rate (66.7%) compared to cloxacillin (62.5%).


          Lasalocid SD IMDS provided high cure rates and effectiveness in treating bovine mastitis with acceptable safety in treated cows.

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          Most cited references 35

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          Inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus invasion into bovine mammary epithelial cells by contact with live Lactobacillus casei.

          Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen that is responsible for mastitis in dairy herds. S. aureus mastitis is difficult to treat and prone to recurrence despite antibiotic treatment. The ability of S. aureus to invade bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) is evoked to explain this chronicity. One sustainable alternative to treat or prevent mastitis is the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as mammary probiotics. In this study, we tested the ability of Lactobacillus casei strains to prevent invasion of bMEC by two S. aureus bovine strains, RF122 and Newbould305, which reproducibly induce acute and moderate mastitis, respectively. L. casei strains affected adhesion and/or internalization of S. aureus in a strain-dependent manner. Interestingly, L. casei CIRM-BIA 667 reduced S. aureus Newbould305 and RF122 internalization by 60 to 80%, and this inhibition was confirmed for two other L. casei strains, including one isolated from bovine teat canal. The protective effect occurred without affecting bMEC morphology and viability. Once internalized, the fate of S. aureus was not affected by L. casei. It should be noted that L. casei was internalized at a low rate but survived in bMEC cells with a better efficiency than that of S. aureus RF122. Inhibition of S. aureus adhesion was maintained with heat-killed L. casei, whereas contact between live L. casei and S. aureus or bMEC was required to prevent S. aureus internalization. This first study of the antagonism of LAB toward S. aureus in a mammary context opens avenues for the development of novel control strategies against this major pathogen.
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            Changes in equine hindgut bacterial populations during oligofructose-induced laminitis.

            In the horse, carbohydrate overload is thought to play an integral role in the onset of laminitis by drastically altering the profile of bacterial populations in the hindgut. The objectives of this study were to develop and validate microbial ecology methods to monitor changes in bacterial populations throughout the course of experimentally induced laminitis and to identify the predominant oligofructose-utilizing organisms. Laminitis was induced in five horses by administration of oligofructose. Faecal specimens were collected at 8 h intervals from 72 h before to 72 h after the administration of oligofructose. Hindgut microbiota able to utilize oligofructose were enumerated throughout the course of the experiment using habitat-simulating medium. Isolates were collected and representatives identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The majority of these isolates collected belonged to the genus Streptococcus, 91% of which were identified as being most closely related to Streptococcus infantarius ssp. coli. Furthermore, S. infantarius ssp. coli was the predominant oligofructose-utilizing organism isolated before the onset of lameness. Fluorescence in situ hybridization probes developed to specifically target the isolated Streptococcus spp. demonstrated marked population increases between 8 and 16 h post oligofructose administration. This was followed by a rapid population decline which corresponded with a sharp decline in faecal pH and subsequently lameness at 24-32 h post oligofructose administration. This research suggests that streptococci within the Streptococcus bovis/equinus complex may be involved in the series of events which precede the onset of laminitis in the horse.
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              Performance standards for antimicrobial disk and dilution susceptibility tests for bacteria isolated from animals. Approved standard

               JL Watts (2002)

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                22 January 2015
                : 9
                : 631-642
                [1 ]School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia Adelaide, SA, Australia
                [2 ]School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia
                [3 ]Luoda Pharma Pty Ltd, Caringbah, NSW, Australia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Sanjay Garg, Centre for Pharmaceutical Innovation and Development (CPID), School of Pharmacy and Medical Science, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000, Australia, Tel +618 8302 1575, Fax +618 8302 2389, Email sanjay.garg@ 123456unisa.edu.au
                © 2015 Wang et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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