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The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Creatinine Levels during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

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      Abstract

      Objective: The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug “U-74389G” on a rat model using an ischemia reperfusion protocol. The effect of U-74389G was studied biochemically by measuring mean blood creatinine levels. Materials and Methods: Forty rats were used in the study. Creatinine levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) or at 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), where groups A and B were controls and groups C and D received U-74389G administration. Results: U-74389G administration significantly decreased the predicted creatinine levels by 21.02 ± 5.06% (p = 0.0001). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the predicted creatinine levels by 4.20 ± 6.12% (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reperfusion time together produced a significant combined effect in decreasing the predicted creatinine levels by 11.69 ± 3.16% (p = 0.0005). Conclusion: Independent of reperfusion time, U-74389G administration significantly decreased the creatinine levels in an ischemic rat model. This study demonstrates that short-term U-74389G administration improves renal function by increasing creatinine excretion.

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      Most cited references 13

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      Relationship between duration of brain death and hemodynamic (in)stability on progressive dysfunction and increased immunologic activation of donor kidneys.

      Consistent difference in graft survival after renal transplantation has been shown when cadaveric transplants are compared to the living related donor situation, in favor of the latter. Recently, evidence has been put forward that brain death has significant effects on the donor organ quality. In this study, we aimed to assess the relation between brain death-induced hemodynamic instability in combination with the duration of brain death on the function and immunogenicity status of potential donor kidneys. In Wistar rats, short-term (1 hour) or long-term (6 hours) brain death in the presence or absence of hemodynamic stability was applied. Sham-operated rats served as controls (1 hour and 6 hours). Organ function was studied by monitoring serum creatinine, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactate, and total protein content. Expression of cell adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)] and the influx of leukocytes in the kidney assessed the immunologic status of the kidney. Progressive organ dysfunction was most pronounced in hemodynamically unstable brain-dead donors reflected by increased serum creatinine levels. Regardless of hemodynamic status, a progressive inflammatory activation by cell adhesion molecule expression and an influx of leukocytes could be observed in kidneys of brain-dead rats compared with nonbrain-dead controls. Brain death causes progressive kidney dysfunction. Also, inflammatory responses reflecting tissue injury are caused by brain death. When hemodynamic instability in the brain-dead donor is not corrected, kidney dysfunction is enhanced and immune activation occurs faster and is more profound. The observed changes may predispose the graft for additional ischemia/reperfusion injury during the transplant process and hence accelerate rejection of the graft after transplantation.
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        Urinary apolipoprotein M could be used as a biomarker of acute renal injury: an ischemia-reperfusion injury model of kidney in rat.

         X. L. Xu,  Q-Y Mao,  G-H Luo (2016)
        It has been well documented that apolipoprotein M (apoM) is principally expressed in hepatocytes as well as renal tubular epithelial cells. The importance of apoM in the kidney is unknown. In the present study we examined urinary any apoM after short-term ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of kidney in a rat model. The kidneys of 11 male Sprague-Dawley rats were rendered ischemic for 45 minutes followed by different intervals of reperfusion. Serum and urine apoM concentrations were determined using a dot-blot analysis with specific rabbit anti-human apoM antibodies that cross-react with rat apoM. Serum concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were determined using standard clinical automated analyses. BUN was significantly elevated after 45 minutes of ischemia followed by 24 hours of reperfusion; serum Cr concentrations were also significantly increased at 6 and 24 hours of reperfusion. Interestingly, similar to BUN and Cr, serum apoM concentrations were significantly increased after ischemia for 45 minutes alone and after 2 hours of reperfusion. Urinary apoM concentrations were obviously increased after 2 h as well as 6 hours of reperfusion. apoM showed characteristics of an acute-phase reactive protein; its occurrence in urine may be considered to be a biomarker of acute renal injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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          The effect of murine anti-thymocyte globulin on experimental kidney warm ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice.

          Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) is an important contributor to delayed graft function (DGF) and poor outcome of allografts. Small clinical studies suggest a beneficial role for human anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) in DGF. We investigated the short-term effect of mouse anti-thymocyte globulin (mATG) on kidney warm IRI in mice. We administered either mATG, rabbit immunoglobulin (RIgG), or saline with different dosing schedules in three different IRI models: 30 min bilateral, 60 min bilateral, and 45min unilateral IRI. mATG effectively depleted circulating T cells but had less effect on kidney-infiltrating T cells. There was no difference in serum creatinine levels between groups in each study. Scoring of renal tubular damage and regenerating tubules revealed no difference between groups. The percentage of CD3(+)CD4(-)CD8(-) double-negative (DN) T cells, which were reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, increased and the percentages of regulatory T cells and NK cells decreased in the post-ischemic kidneys of mATG treated mice. mATG did not alter the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma or anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 in post-ischemic kidneys. mATG treatment, whether initiated before ischemia or immediately after reperfusion, had minimal effects on renal injury following warm IRI in mice.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            aDepartment of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Mesologi County Hospital, Etoloakarnania; bDepartment of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Aretaieion Hospital; cDepartment of Surgery, Ippokrateion General Hospital, Athens University, Attiki, Greece; dExperimental Research Centre ELPEN Pharmaceuticals, S.A. Inc., Co.
            Journal
            CUR
            CUR
            10.1159/issn.1661-7649
            Current Urology
            Curr Urol
            S. Karger AG (Basel, Switzerland karger@123456karger.com http://www.karger.com )
            1661-7649
            1661-7657
            May 2016
            20 May 2016
            : 9
            : 2
            : 73-78
            © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel

            Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher or, in the case of photocopying, direct payment of a specified fee to the Copyright Clearance Center. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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            Tables: 8, References: 29, Pages: 6
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