0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Insights from the Genetics of Severe Childhood Obesity

      Hormone Research in Paediatrics

      S. Karger AG

      Melanocortin, Leptin, Genetics, Obesity

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background: The identification and characterization of monogenic obesity syndromes have improved our understanding of the inherited component of severe obesity and have had undoubted medical benefits. This knowledge has also helped to dispel the notion that obesity represents an individual defect in behaviour with no biological basis. Conclusions: For individuals at highest risk for complications of severe obesity, such findings provide a starting point for providing more rational mechanism-based therapies, as has successfully been achieved for congenital leptin deficiency.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 10

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical and molecular genetic spectrum of congenital deficiency of the leptin receptor.

          A single family has been described in which obesity results from a mutation in the leptin-receptor gene (LEPR), but the prevalence of such mutations in severe, early-onset obesity has not been systematically examined. We sequenced LEPR in 300 subjects with hyperphagia and severe early-onset obesity, including 90 probands from consanguineous families, and investigated the extent to which mutations cosegregated with obesity and affected receptor function. We evaluated metabolic, endocrine, and immune function in probands and affected relatives. Of the 300 subjects, 8 (3%) had nonsense or missense LEPR mutations--7 were homozygotes, and 1 was a compound heterozygote. All missense mutations resulted in impaired receptor signaling. Affected subjects were characterized by hyperphagia, severe obesity, alterations in immune function, and delayed puberty due to hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Serum leptin levels were within the range predicted by the elevated fat mass in these subjects. Their clinical features were less severe than those of subjects with congenital leptin deficiency. The prevalence of pathogenic LEPR mutations in a cohort of subjects with severe, early-onset obesity was 3%. Circulating levels of leptin were not disproportionately elevated, suggesting that serum leptin cannot be used as a marker for leptin-receptor deficiency. Congenital leptin-receptor deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis in any child with hyperphagia and severe obesity in the absence of developmental delay or dysmorphism. Copyright 2007 Massachusetts Medical Society.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A missense mutation disrupting a dibasic prohormone processing site in pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) increases susceptibility to early-onset obesity through a novel molecular mechanism.

            The functional loss of both alleles of the human pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) gene leads to a very rare syndrome of hypoadrenalism, red hair and early-onset obesity. In order to examine whether more subtle genetic variants in POMC might contribute to early-onset obesity, the coding region of the gene was sequenced in 262 Caucasian subjects with a history of severe obesity from childhood. Two children were found to be heterozygous for a missense mutation, R236G, which disrupts the dibasic cleavage site between beta melanocyte-stimulating hormone (beta-MSH) and beta-endorphin. Beta-TC3 cells transfected with the mutant POMC cDNA produced a mutant beta-MSH/beta-endorphin fusion protein. This fusion protein bound to the human melanocortin-4 receptor (hMC4R) with an affinity similar to its natural ligands, but had a markedly reduced ability to activate the receptor. This variant co-segregated with early-onset obesity over three generations in one family and was absent in 412 normal weight UK Caucasian controls. Combining the results in UK Caucasians with a new case-control study in French subjects and three previously published reports, mutations disrupting this processing site were present in 0.88% of subjects with early-onset obesity and 0.22% of normal-weight controls. These results suggest that the R236G mutation may confer an inherited susceptibility to obesity through the production of an aberrant fusion protein that has the capacity to interfere with central melanocortin signalling.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Minireview: From anorexia to obesity--the yin and yang of body weight control.

              Over the past decade, there has been a tremendous increase in the understanding of the molecular and neural mechanisms that control food intake and body weight. Yet eating disorders and cachexia are still common, and obesity cases are rising at alarming rates. Thus, despite recent progress, an increased understanding of the molecular and neural substrates that control body weight homeostasis is a major public health goal. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms by which metabolic signals interact with key behavioral, neuroendocrine, and autonomic regulatory regions of the central nervous system. Additionally, we offer a model in which hormones such as leptin and ghrelin interact with similar central nervous system circuits and engage them in such a way as to maintain an appropriate and tight regulation of body weight and food intake. Our model predicts that overstimulation or understimulation of these central pathways can result in obesity, anorexia, or cachexia.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8475-3
                978-3-8055-8476-0
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                December 2007
                10 December 2007
                : 68
                : Suppl 5
                : 5-7
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
                Article
                110462 Horm Res 2007;68:5–7
                10.1159/000110462
                18174694
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                References: 23, Pages: 3
                Categories
                Combined Plenary Lecture 2

                Comments

                Comment on this article