+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Enhancement of conservation knowledge through increased access to botanical information

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.


          Herbarium specimens are increasingly recognized as an important resource for conservation science and virtual herbaria are making specimens freely available to a wider range of users than ever before. Few virtual herbaria are designed with conservation use as a primary driver. Exceptionally, Brazil's Reflora Virtual Herbarium (RVH) was created to increase knowledge and conservation of the Brazilian flora. The RVH is closely integrated with the Flora of Brazil 2020 platform on which Brazil's new national Flora is under construction. Both resources are accessible via the Reflora home page and thousands of users move seamlessly between these Reflora resources. To understand how the Reflora resources are currently used and their impact on conservation science, we conducted a literature review and an online survey. We searched for publications of studies in which Reflora resources were used and publications resulting from Brazilian researchers who were part of Reflora's research and mobility program. The survey contained multiple choice questions and questions that required a written response. We targeted Reflora webpage visitors with the survey to capture a wider range of Reflora users than the literature review. Reflora resources were used for a variety of conservation‐relevant purposes. Half the 806 scientific publications in which Reflora was cited and 81% of the 1069 survey respondents accessing Reflora resources mentioned conservation‐relevant research outputs. Most conservation‐relevant uses of the Reflora resources in scientific publications were research rather than implementation focused. The survey of Reflora users showed conservation uses and impacts of virtual herbaria were more numerous and diverse than the uses captured in the literature review. Virtual herbaria are vital resources for conservation science, but they must document use and impacts more comprehensively to ensure sustainability.


          Article impact statement: Virtual herbaria, vital resources for taxonomy, conservation and ecology, must showcase their relevance to gain ongoing support.

          Translated abstract

          Revalorización del Conocimiento sobre Conservación por Medio de Mayor Acceso a la Información Botánica


          Los especímenes de los herbarios son reconocidos cada vez más como un recurso importante para la ciencia de la conservación, y, como nunca antes, los herbarios virtuales están poniendo a los especímenes a libre disposición para una gama mucho más amplia de usuarios. Pocos herbarios virtuales están diseñados con el uso para la conservación como conductor primario. Excepcionalmente, se creó el Herbario Virtual Reflora de Brasil (RVH, en inglés) para incrementar el conocimiento y la conservación de la flora brasileña. El RVH está integrado cuidadosamente con la plataforma Flora de Brasil 2020, sobre la cual está bajo construcción la nueva flora nacional de Brasil. Se accede a ambos recursos a través de la página inicial de Reflora y miles de usuarios navegan continuamente entre estos recursos de la página. Para entender cómo se usan actualmente los recursos de Reflora así como su impacto sobre la ciencia de la conservación, realizamos una revisión de la literatura y una encuesta en línea. Buscamos las publicaciones de estudios que usaron los recursos de Reflora y las publicaciones elaboradas por investigadores brasileños que formaron parte del programa de investigación y movilidad de Reflora. La encuesta incluyó preguntas de opción múltiple y preguntas que requerían una respuesta escrita. Enfocamos la encuesta en los visitantes a la página web de Reflora para obtener una gama más amplia de usuarios de Reflora que la que obtendríamos sólo con la revisión de la literatura. Los recursos de Reflora se usaron para una variedad de propósitos relevantes para la conservación. La mitad de las 806 publicaciones científicas en las que se citó a Reflora y el 81% de los 1069 encuestados que acceden a los recursos de Reflora mencionaron resultados de investigación relevantes para la conservación. La mayoría de los usos relevantes para la conservación de los recursos de Reflora en las publicaciones científicas estuvieron más enfocados en la investigación que en la implementación. La encuesta para los usuarios de Reflora mostró que los usos e impactos de los herbarios virtuales fueron más numerosos y diversos que los usos capturados en la revisión de la literatura. Los herbarios virtuales son recursos vitales para la ciencia de la conservación, pero deben documentar su uso y sus impactos exhaustivamente para asegurar su sustentabilidad.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 29

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          The Measurement of Observer Agreement for Categorical Data

            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data.

             G Koch,  J R Landis (1977)
            This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Knowing but not doing: selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap.

              Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it is widely believed that conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions that actually conserve nature. We reviewed the conservation assessment literature in peer-reviewed journals and conducted survey questionnaires of the authors of these studies. Two-thirds of conservation assessments published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature do not deliver conservation action, primarily because most researchers never plan for implementation. This research-implementation gap between conservation science and real-world action is a genuine phenomenon and is a specific example of the "knowing-doing gap" that is widely recognized in management science. Given the woefully inadequate resources allocated for conservation, our findings raise questions over the utility of conservation assessment science, as currently practiced, to provide useful, pragmatic solutions to conservation planning problems. A reevaluation of the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning research is urgently required. We recommend the following actions for beginning a process for bridging the research-implementation gap in conservation planning: (1) acknowledge the research-implementation gap is real, (2) source research questions from practitioners, (3) situate research within a broader conservation planning model, (4) expand the social dimension of conservation assessments, (5) support conservation plans with transdisciplinary social learning institutions, (6) reward academics for societal engagement and implementation, and (7) train students in skills for "doing" conservation.

                Author and article information

                Conserv Biol
                Conserv. Biol
                Conservation Biology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                26 February 2019
                June 2019
                : 33
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1111/cobi.2019.33.issue-3 )
                : 523-533
                [ 1 ] Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew TW9 3AE Richmond Surrey U.K.
                [ 2 ] Universidade Federal de Pelotas Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel Avenida Eliseu Maciel, s/n ‐ Capão Leão 96050–500 Capão do Leão RS Brazil
                [ 3 ] Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro Pacheco Leão 915 22460−030 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil
                Author notes
                [* ]Address for correspondence: Royal Botanic Gardens, email c.canteiro@
                © 2019 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Pages: 11, Words: 7097
                Funded by: British Council , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100000308;
                Funded by: Newton Fund , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100010897;
                Funded by: Department for Business, Innovation and Skills , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100004800;
                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100003593;
                Funded by: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100002322;
                Funded by: Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Distrito Federal , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100005668;
                Funded by: IFN ‐ Inventário Florestal Nacional
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100004901;
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado da Bahia , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100006181;
                Funded by: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100001807;
                Funded by: Fundação Araucária , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100004612;
                Funded by: SiBBr ‐ Sistema de Informação sobre a Biodiversidade Brasileira
                Funded by: Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro , open-funder-registry 10.13039/501100004586;
                Funded by: Natura
                Funded by: Vale , open-funder-registry 10.13039/100012637;
                Conservation Focus Contributed Paper
                Conservation Focus Contributed Paper
                Custom metadata
                June 2019
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.7.1 mode:remove_FC converted:12.11.2019


                Comment on this article