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      Biphasic versus Monophasic Shock for External Cardioversion of Atrial Flutter

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          Abstract

          Background: External cardioversion is effective to terminate persistent atrial flutter. Biphasic shocks have been shown to be superior to monophasic shocks for ventricular defibrillation and atrial fibrillation cardioversion. The purpose of this trial was to compare the efficacy of rectilinear biphasic versus standard damped sine wave monophasic shocks in symptomatic patients with typical atrial flutter. Methods: 135 consecutive patients were screened, 95 (70 males, mean age 62 ± 13 years) were included. Patients were randomly assigned to a monophasic or biphasic cardioversion protocol. Forty-seven patients randomized to the monophasic protocol received sequential shocks of 100, 150, 200, 300 and 360 J. Forty-eight patients with the biphasic protocol received 50, 75, 100, 150 or 200 J. Results: First-shock efficacy with 50-Joule, biphasic shocks (23/48 patients, 48%) was significantly greater than with the 100-Joule, monophasic waveform (13/47 patients, 28%, p = 0.04). The cumulative second-shock efficacy with the 50- and 75-Joule, biphasic waveform (39/48 patients, 81%) was significantly greater than with the 100- and 150-Joule, monophasic waveform (25/47 patients, 53%, p < 0.05). The cumulative efficacy for the higher energy levels showed naturally no significant difference between the two groups. The amount of the mean delivered energy was significantly lower in the biphasic group (76 ± 39 J) compared to the monophasic one (177 ± 78 J, p < 0.05). Conclusions: For transthoracic cardioversion of typical atrial flutter, biphasic shocks have greater efficacy and the mean delivered current is lower than for monophasic shocks. Therefore, biphasic cardioversion with lower starting energies should be recommended.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Secular trends in the prevalence of atrial fibrillation: The Framingham Study.

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            A trial of self-adhesive patch electrodes and hand-held paddle electrodes for external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (MOBIPAPA).

            External electrical cardioversion is the method of choice to terminate persistent atrial fibrillation. Whether the type of shock electrode affects cardioversion success is not known. We tested whether hand-held steel electrodes improve cardioversion outcome with monophasic or biphasic shocks when compared with adhesive patch electrodes. Two hundred and one consecutive patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (147 male, mean age 63+/-1 years, duration of atrial fibrillation 6.3+/-1 months) were randomly assigned to cardioversion using either a sinusoidal monophasic or a truncated exponential biphasic shock wave form. The first half of patients were cardioverted using adhesive patch electrodes, the second half using hand-held steel paddle electrodes, and all patients using an anterior-posterior electrode position. Paddle electrodes successfully cardioverted 100/104 patients (96%) and patch electrodes 85/97 patients (88%, P=0.04). This effect was comparable to that of biphasic shocks: biphasic shocks cardioverted 102/104 patients (98%) and monophasic shocks 83/97 patients (86%, P=0.001). A beneficial effect of paddle electrodes was observed for both shock wave forms. After cross-over from an ineffective monophasic to a biphasic shock, cardioversion was successful in 198/201 (98.5%) patients. Unsuccessful cardioversion after cross-over (3/201 patients) only occurred with patch electrodes (P=0.07). Hand-held paddle electrodes increase success of external cardioversion of atrial fibrillation in this trial. This increase is of similar magnitude as the increase in cardioversion success achieved with biphasic shocks. A combination of biphasic shocks, paddle electrodes, and an anterior-posterior electrode position renders outcome of external cardioversion almost always successful (104/104 patients in this trial).
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              Biphasic versus monophasic shock waveform for conversion of atrial fibrillation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2008
                July 2008
                01 February 2008
                : 111
                : 1
                : 57-62
                Affiliations
                Department of Cardiology, University Heart Center Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany
                Article
                113429 Cardiology 2008;111:57–62
                10.1159/000113429
                18239394
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 24, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Original Research

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