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      Metformin and its sulphonamide derivative simultaneously potentiateanti-cholinesterase activity of donepezil and inhibit beta-amyloid aggregation

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          The aim of this study was to assess in vitro the effects of sulphenamide and sulphonamide derivatives of metformin on the activity of human acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), establish the type of inhibition, and assess the potential synergism between biguanides and donepezil towards both cholinesterases (ChEs) and the effects on the β-amyloid aggregation. Sulphonamide 5 with para-trifluoromethyl- and ortho-nitro substituents in aromatic ring inhibited AChE in a mixed-type manner at micromolar concentrations (IC 50 = 212.5 ± 48.3 µmol/L). The binary mixtures of donepezil and biguanides produce an anti-AChE effect, which was greater than either compound had alone. A combination of donepezil and sulphonamide 5 improved the IC 50 value by 170 times. Compound 5 at 200 µmol/L inhibited Aβ aggregation by ∼20%. In conclusion, para-trifluoromethyl- ortho-nitro-benzenesulphonamide presents highly beneficial anti-AChE and anti-Aβ aggregation properties which could serve as a promising starting point for the design and development of novel biguanide-based candidates for AD treatment.

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          Theoretical basis, experimental design, and computerized simulation of synergism and antagonism in drug combination studies.

          The median-effect equation derived from the mass-action law principle at equilibrium-steady state via mathematical induction and deduction for different reaction sequences and mechanisms and different types of inhibition has been shown to be the unified theory for the Michaelis-Menten equation, Hill equation, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, and Scatchard equation. It is shown that dose and effect are interchangeable via defined parameters. This general equation for the single drug effect has been extended to the multiple drug effect equation for n drugs. These equations provide the theoretical basis for the combination index (CI)-isobologram equation that allows quantitative determination of drug interactions, where CI 1 indicate synergism, additive effect, and antagonism, respectively. Based on these algorithms, computer software has been developed to allow automated simulation of synergism and antagonism at all dose or effect levels. It displays the dose-effect curve, median-effect plot, combination index plot, isobologram, dose-reduction index plot, and polygonogram for in vitro or in vivo studies. This theoretical development, experimental design, and computerized data analysis have facilitated dose-effect analysis for single drug evaluation or carcinogen and radiation risk assessment, as well as for drug or other entity combinations in a vast field of disciplines of biomedical sciences. In this review, selected examples of applications are given, and step-by-step examples of experimental designs and real data analysis are also illustrated. The merging of the mass-action law principle with mathematical induction-deduction has been proven to be a unique and effective scientific method for general theory development. The median-effect principle and its mass-action law based computer software are gaining increased applications in biomedical sciences, from how to effectively evaluate a single compound or entity to how to beneficially use multiple drugs or modalities in combination therapies.
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            Oxidative stress and the amyloid beta peptide in Alzheimer’s disease

            Oxidative stress is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. In particular, it is linked to the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Histopathological hallmarks of AD are intracellular neurofibrillary tangles and extracellular formation of senile plaques composed of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) in aggregated form along with metal-ions such as copper, iron or zinc. Redox active metal ions, as for example copper, can catalyze the production of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) when bound to the amyloid-β (Aβ). The ROS thus produced, in particular the hydroxyl radical which is the most reactive one, may contribute to oxidative damage on both the Aβ peptide itself and on surrounding molecule (proteins, lipids, …). This review highlights the existing link between oxidative stress and AD, and the consequences towards the Aβ peptide and surrounding molecules in terms of oxidative damage. In addition, the implication of metal ions in AD, their interaction with the Aβ peptide and redox properties leading to ROS production are discussed, along with both in vitro and in vivo oxidation of the Aβ peptide, at the molecular level.
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              Metformin activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation.

              Although endogenous recruitment of adult neural stem cells has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy, clinical approaches for achieving this are lacking. Here, we show that metformin, a widely used drug, promotes neurogenesis and enhances spatial memory formation. Specifically, we show that an atypical PKC-CBP pathway is essential for the normal genesis of neurons from neural precursors and that metformin activates this pathway to promote rodent and human neurogenesis in culture. Metformin also enhances neurogenesis in the adult mouse brain in a CBP-dependent fashion, and in so doing enhances spatial reversal learning in the water maze. Thus, metformin, by activating an aPKC-CBP pathway, recruits neural stem cells and enhances neural function, thereby providing a candidate pharmacological approach for nervous system therapy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
                J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem
                Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry
                Taylor & Francis
                24 September 2018
                : 33
                : 1
                : 1309-1322
                [a ]Laboratory of Bioanalysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Radiopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz , Lodz, Poland;
                [b ]Faculty of Health Sciences, School Of Pharmacy, University of Eastern Finland , Kuopio, Finland
                Author notes
                CONTACT Magdalena Markowicz-Piasecka magdalena.markowicz@ Laboratory of Bioanalysis, Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Drug Analysis and Radiopharmacy, Medical University of Lodz , ul. Muszynskiego 1, 90-151Lodz, Poland

                Supplemental data for this article can be accessed here .

                © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Pages: 14, Words: 9895
                Funded by: Medical University of Lodz 10.13039/501100005888
                Award ID: 503/3–015-01/503–31-006
                Funded by: National Science Centre in Poland
                Award ID: 2016/21/D/NZ7/01548
                Funded by: Academy of Finland 10.13039/501100002341
                Award ID: 307057
                The work is partially funded by Medical University of Lodz [grant no. 503/3–015-01/503–31-006], National Science Centre in Poland [research project No. 2016/21/D/NZ7/01548], and the Academy of Finland [grant number 307057].
                Research Paper

                Pharmaceutical chemistry

                amyloid, metformin, donepezil, alzheimer’s disease, acetylcholinesterase


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