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      Effect of Treatment on Body Fluid in Patients with Unilateral Aldosterone Producing Adenoma: Adrenalectomy versus Spironolactone

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          Aldosterone affects fluid retention in the body by affecting how much salt and water that the kidney retains or excretes. There is limited information about the effect of prolonged aldosterone excess and treatment on body fluid in primary aldosteronism (PA) patients. In this study, body composition changes of 41 PA patients with unilateral aldosterone producing adenoma (APA) were assessed by a bio-impedance spectroscopy device. Patients with APA receiving adrenalectomy, as compared with those treated with spironolactone, had significantly lower relative overhydration (OH) and urine albumin excretion, and significantly higher urine sodium excretion four weeks after treatment. These differences dissipated 12 weeks after the initial treatment. Independent factors to predict decreased relative OH four weeks after treatment were male patients and patients who experienced adrenalectomy. Patients who underwent adrenaelctomy had significantly decreased TNF-α and increased serum potassium level when compared to patients treated with spironolactone 4 and 12 weeks after treatment. In this pilot study, we found that adrenalectomy leads to an earlier increase in renal sodium excretion and decreases in body fluid content, TNF-α, and urine albumin excretion. Adrenalectomy yields a therapeutic effect more rapidly, which has been shown to ameliorate overhydration in PA patients.

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          Most cited references 41

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          Longitudinal data analysis for discrete and continuous outcomes.

           K Liang,  S Zeger,  David Shay (1986)
          Longitudinal data sets are comprised of repeated observations of an outcome and a set of covariates for each of many subjects. One objective of statistical analysis is to describe the marginal expectation of the outcome variable as a function of the covariates while accounting for the correlation among the repeated observations for a given subject. This paper proposes a unifying approach to such analysis for a variety of discrete and continuous outcomes. A class of generalized estimating equations (GEEs) for the regression parameters is proposed. The equations are extensions of those used in quasi-likelihood (Wedderburn, 1974, Biometrika 61, 439-447) methods. The GEEs have solutions which are consistent and asymptotically Gaussian even when the time dependence is misspecified as we often expect. A consistent variance estimate is presented. We illustrate the use of the GEE approach with longitudinal data from a study of the effect of mothers' stress on children's morbidity.
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            Evidence for an increased rate of cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism.

            The aim of this report was to show that the rate of cardiovascular events is increased in patients with either subtype of primary aldosteronism (PA). Primary aldosteronism involves hypertension (HTN), hypokalemia, and low plasma renin. The two major PA subtypes are unilateral aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA) and bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. During a three-year period, the diagnosis of PA was made in 124 of 5,500 patients referred for comprehensive evaluation and management. Adenomas were diagnosed in 65 patients and idiopathic hyperaldosteronism in 59 patients. During the same period, clinical characteristics and cardiovascular events of this group were compared with those of 465 patients with essential hypertension (EHT) randomly matched for age, gender, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. A history of stroke was found in 12.9% of patients with PA and 3.4% of patients with EHT (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.0 to 8.6]). Non-fatal myocardial infarction was diagnosed in 4.0% of patients with PA and in 0.6% of patients with EHT (OR = 6.5; 95% CI 1.5 to 27.4). A history of atrial fibrillation was diagnosed in 7.3% of patients with PA and 0.6% of patients with EHT (OR = 12.1; 95% CI 3.2 to 45.2). The occurrence of cardiovascular complications was comparable in both subtypes of PA. Patients presenting with PA experienced more cardiovascular events than did EHT patients independent of blood pressure. The presence of PA should be detected, not only to determine the cause of HTN, but also to prevent such complications.
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              Body fluid volume determination via body composition spectroscopy in health and disease.

              The assessment of extra-, intracellular and total body water (ECW, ICW, TBW) is important in many clinical situations. Bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) has advantages over dilution methods in terms of usability and reproducibility, but a careful analysis reveals systematic deviations in extremes of body composition and morbid states. Recent publications stress the need to set up and validate BIS equations in a wide variety of healthy subjects and patients with fluid imbalance. This paper presents two new equations for determination of ECW and ICW (referred to as body composition spectroscopy, BCS) based on Hanai mixture theory but corrected for body mass index (BMI). The equations were set up by means of cross validation using data of 152 subjects (120 healthy subjects, 32 dialysis patients) from three different centers. Validation was performed against bromide/deuterium dilution (NaBr, D2O) for ECW/TBW and total body potassium (TBK) for ICW. Agreement between BCS and the references (all subjects) was -0.4 +/- 1.4 L (mean +/- SD) for ECW, 0.2 +/- 2.0 L for ICW and -0.2 +/- 2.3 L for TBW. The ECW agreement between three independent reference methods (NaBr versus D2O-TBK) was -0.1 +/- 1.8 L for 74 subjects from two centers. Comparing the new BCS equations with the standard Hanai approach revealed an improvement in SEE for ICW and TBW by 0.6 L (24%) for all subjects, and by 1.2 L (48%) for 24 subjects with extreme BMIs ( 30). BCS may be an appropriate method for body fluid volume determination over a wide range of body compositions in different states of health and disease.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                19 October 2015
                : 5
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation , Taipei, Taiwan
                [2 ]School of Medicine, Tzu Chi University , Hualien, Taiwan
                [3 ]Departments of Internal Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital
                [4 ]Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, National Taiwan University Hospital
                [5 ]Division of Urology, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation , Taipei, Taiwan
                [6 ]Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital, Buddhist Tzu Chi Medical Foundation , Taipei, Taiwan
                Author notes
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