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      Injectable Hydrogel-Based Nanocomposites for Cardiovascular Diseases

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          Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), including a series of pathological disorders, severely affect millions of people all over the world. To address this issue, several potential therapies have been developed for treating CVDs, including injectable hydrogels as a minimally invasive method. However, the utilization of injectable hydrogel is a bit restricted recently owing to some limitations, such as transporting the therapeutic agent more accurately to the target site and prolonging their retention locally. This review focuses on the advances in injectable hydrogels for CVD, detailing the types of injectable hydrogels (natural or synthetic), especially that complexed with stem cells, cytokines, nano-chemical particles, exosomes, genetic material including DNA or RNA, etc. Moreover, we summarized the mainly prominent mechanism, based on which injectable hydrogel present excellent treating effect of cardiovascular repair. All in all, it is hopefully that injectable hydrogel-based nanocomposites would be a potential candidate through cardiac repair in CVDs treatment.

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          Most cited references 165

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             Dror Seliktar (2012)
            Hydrogels are polymeric materials distinguished by high water content and diverse physical properties. They can be engineered to resemble the extracellular environment of the body's tissues in ways that enable their use in medical implants, biosensors, and drug-delivery devices. Cell-compatible hydrogels are designed by using a strategy of coordinated control over physical properties and bioactivity to influence specific interactions with cellular systems, including spatial and temporal patterns of biochemical and biomechanical cues known to modulate cell behavior. Important new discoveries in stem cell research, cancer biology, and cellular morphogenesis have been realized with model hydrogel systems premised on these designs. Basic and clinical applications for hydrogels in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and biomedical research continue to drive design improvements using performance-based materials engineering paradigms.
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              Cardiovascular disease in Europe 2014: epidemiological update.

              This paper provides an update for 2014 on the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and in particular coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke, across the countries of Europe. Cardiovascular disease causes more deaths among Europeans than any other condition, and in many countries still causes more than twice as many deaths as cancer. There is clear evidence in most countries with available data that mortality and case-fatality rates from CHD and stroke have decreased substantially over the last 5-10 years but at differing rates. The differing recent trends have therefore led to increasing inequalities in the burden of CVD between countries. For some Eastern European countries, including Russia and Ukraine, the mortality rate for CHD for 55-60 year olds is greater than the equivalent rate in France for people 20 years older.

                Author and article information

                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front Bioeng Biotechnol
                Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol.
                Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                31 March 2020
                : 8
                1Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Tropical Disease Research, School of Public Health, Southern Medical University , Guangzhou, China
                2The Eighth Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University , Shenzhen, China
                Author notes

                Edited by: Chao Zhao, The University of Alabama, United States

                Reviewed by: Chiara Tonda-Turo, Politecnico di Torino, Italy; Enza Torino, University of Naples Federico II, Italy

                *Correspondence: Wenzhen Liao, wenzhenliao@ 123456163.com

                These authors have contributed equally to this work

                This article was submitted to Nanobiotechnology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology

                Copyright © 2020 Liao, Yang, Deng, Hao, Mao, Zhang, Liao and Yuan.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 183, Pages: 18, Words: 0
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 10.13039/501100001809
                Award ID: 81972488
                Award ID: 81701836
                Award ID: 81973013
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Guangdong Province 10.13039/501100003453
                Award ID: C1051164
                Bioengineering and Biotechnology


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