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      Prognostic and treatment predictive significance of SATB1 and SATB2 expression in pancreatic and periampullary adenocarcinoma

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          Abstract

          Background

          Pancreatic cancer and other pancreaticobiliary type periampullary adenocarcinomas have a dismal prognosis even after resection and neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Intestinal type periampullary adenocarcinomas generally have a better prognosis, but little is known on optimal neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment. New prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers are needed for improved treatment stratification of patients with both types of periampullary adenocarcinoma. Expression of the Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) has been demonstrated to confer a worse prognosis in several tumour types, whereas its close homologue SATB2 is a proposed diagnostic and favourable prognostic marker for colorectal cancer. The prognostic value of SATB1 and SATB2 expression in periampullary adenocarcinoma has not yet been described.

          Methods

          Immunohistochemical expression of SATB1 and SATB2 was analysed in tissue microarrays with primary tumours and a subset of paired lymph node metastases from 175 patients operated with pancreaticoduodenectomy for periampullary adenocarcinoma. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis were applied to explore the impact of SATB1 and SATB2 expression on recurrence free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS).

          Results

          Positive expression of SATB1 was denoted in 16/106 primary pancreatobiliary type tumours and 11/65 metastases, and in 15/63 primary intestinal type tumours and 4/26 metastases, respectively. Expression of SATB1 was an independent predictor of a significantly shorter RFS and OS in pancreatobiliary type, but not in intestinal type adenocarcinomas. Moreover, SATB1 expression predicted an improved response to adjuvant chemotherapy in both tumour types. SATB2-expression was seen in 3/107 pancreatobiliary type primary tumours, and in 8/61 intestinal type primary tumours. The small number of cases with positive SATB2 expression did not allow for any firm conclusions on its prognostic value.

          Conclusions

          These findings demonstrate the potential utility of SATB1 as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for chemotherapy response in both intestinal type and pancreatobiliary type periampullary adenocarcinomas, including pancreatic cancer.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12967-014-0289-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Adjuvant chemotherapy with gemcitabine and long-term outcomes among patients with resected pancreatic cancer: the CONKO-001 randomized trial.

          The prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer is poor, even after resection with curative intent. Gemcitabine-based chemotherapy is standard treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer, but its effect on survival in the adjuvant setting has not been demonstrated. To analyze whether previously reported improvement in disease-free survival with adjuvant gemcitabine therapy translates into improved overall survival. CONKO-001 (Charité Onkologie 001), a multicenter, open-label, phase 3 randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of gemcitabine in patients with pancreatic cancer after complete tumor resection. Patients with macroscopically completely removed pancreatic cancer entered the study between July 1998 and December 2004 in 88 hospitals in Germany and Austria. Follow-up ended in September 2012. After stratification for tumor stage, nodal status, and resection status, patients were randomly assigned to either adjuvant gemcitabine treatment (1g/m2 d 1, 8, 15, q 4 weeks) for 6 months or to observation alone. The primary end point was disease-free survival. Secondary end points included treatment safety and overall survival, with overall survival defined as the time from date of randomization to death. Patients lost to follow-up were censored on the date of their last follow-up. A total of 368 patients were randomized, and 354 were eligible for intention-to-treat-analysis. By September 2012, 308 patients (87.0% [95% CI, 83.1%-90.1%]) had relapsed and 316 patients (89.3% [95% CI, 85.6%-92.1%]) had died. The median follow-up time was 136 months. The median disease-free survival was 13.4 (95% CI, 11.6-15.3) months in the treatment group compared with 6.7 (95% CI, 6.0-7.5) months in the observation group (hazard ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.44-0.69]; P < .001). Patients randomized to adjuvant gemcitabine treatment had prolonged overall survival compared with those randomized to observation alone (hazard ratio, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.61-0.95]; P = .01), with 5-year overall survival of 20.7% (95% CI, 14.7%-26.6%) vs 10.4% (95% CI, 5.9%-15.0%), respectively, and 10-year overall survival of 12.2% (95% CI, 7.3%-17.2%) vs 7.7% (95% CI, 3.6%-11.8%). Among patients with macroscopic complete removal of pancreatic cancer, the use of adjuvant gemcitabine for 6 months compared with observation alone resulted in increased overall survival as well as disease-free survival. These findings provide strong support for the use of gemcitabine in this setting. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN34802808.
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            Tissue microarrays for rapid linking of molecular changes to clinical endpoints.

            Advances in genomics and proteomics are dramatically increasing the need to evaluate large numbers of molecular targets for their diagnostic, predictive or prognostic value in clinical oncology. Conventional molecular pathology techniques are often tedious, time-consuming, and require a lot of tissue, thereby limiting both the number of tissues and the number of targets that can be evaluated. Here, we demonstrate the power of our recently described tissue microarray (TMA) technology in analyzing prognostic markers in a series of 553 breast carcinomas. Four independent TMAs were constructed by acquiring 0.6 mm biopsies from one central and from three peripheral regions of each of the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tumors. Immunostaining of TMA sections and conventional "large" sections were performed for two well- established prognostic markers, estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR), as well as for p53, another frequently examined protein for which the data on prognostic utility in breast cancer are less unequivocal. Compared with conventional large section analysis, a single sample from each tumor identified about 95% of the information for ER, 75 to 81% for PR, and 70 to 74% for p53. However, all 12 TMA analyses (three antibodies on four different arrays) yielded as significant or more significant associations with tumor-specific survival than large section analyses (p < 0.0015 for each of the 12 comparisons). A single sample from each tumor was sufficient to identify associations between molecular alterations and clinical outcome. It is concluded that, contrary to expectations, tissue heterogeneity did not negatively influence the predictive power of the TMA results. TMA technology will be of substantial value in rapidly translating genomic and proteomics information to clinical applications.
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              Identification of SATB2 as the cleft palate gene on 2q32-q33.

              Cytogenetic evidence, in the form of deletions and balanced translocations, points to the existence of a locus on 2q32-q33, for which haploinsufficiency results in isolated cleft palate (CPO). Here we show by high-resolution FISH mapping of two de novo CPO-associated translocations involving 2q32-q33 that one breakpoint interrupts the transcription unit of the gene encoding the DNA-binding protein SATB2 (formerly KIAA1034). The breakpoint in the other translocation is located 130 kb 3' to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal, within a conserved region of non-coding DNA. The SATB2 gene is transcribed in a telomeric to centromeric direction and lies in a gene-poor region of 2q32-q33; the nearest confirmed gene is 1.26 Mb centromeric to the SATB2 polyadenylation signal. SATB2-encoding transcripts are assembled from 11 exons that span 191 kb of genomic DNA. They encode a protein of 733 amino acids that has two CUT domains and a homeodomain and shows a remarkable degree of evolutionary conservation, with only three amino acid substitutions between mouse and human. This protein belongs to the same family as SATB1, a nuclear matrix-attachment region binding protein implicated in transcriptional control and control of chromatin remodelling. There are also sequence similarities to the Drosophila protein DVE. Whole mount in situ hybridization to mouse embryos shows site- and stage-specific expression of SATB2 in the developing palate. Despite the strong evidence supporting an important role for SATB2 in palate development, mutation analysis of 70 unrelated patients with CPO did not reveal any coding region variants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                jacob.elebro@med.lu.se
                margareta.heby@med.lu.se
                alexander.gaber@med.lu.se
                bjorn.nodin@med.lu.se
                liv.jonsson@med.lu.se
                richard.fristedt@med.lu.se
                mathias.uhlen@scilifelab.se
                karin.jirstrom@med.lu.se
                jakob.eberhard@med.lu.se
                Journal
                J Transl Med
                J Transl Med
                Journal of Translational Medicine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1479-5876
                17 October 2014
                17 October 2014
                2014
                : 12
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Oncology and Pathology, Lund University, Skåne University Hospital, 221 85 Lund, Sweden
                [ ]Science for Life Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, 171 21 Stockholm, Sweden
                [ ]School of Biotechnology, AlbaNova University Center, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
                Article
                289
                10.1186/s12967-014-0289-8
                4232660
                25323550
                © Elebro et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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                © The Author(s) 2014

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